Monday, May 25, 2020

Film Analysis Of Belle Epoque - 981 Words

The 1992 film directed by Fernando Trueba, Belle Epoque is a Spanish film that is set in 1931 and while the year itself seems to hold little significance to the plot of the story it provides viewers with an alternative to what the 1930’s in Spain could have held. Belle Epoque demonstrates to viewers a society in which sexual liberation, and freedom, are accepted as well as a reversal in the roles of men and women. One of most interesting aspects of the film is of the relationship between the four daughters, Clara (played by Miriam Diaz Aroca), Rocà ­o (played by Maribel Verdà º), Violeta (played by Ariadna Gil), and Luz (played by Penà ©lope Cruz) and their interaction with a mysterious visitor Fernando (played by Jorge Sanz). Throughout the†¦show more content†¦She is in a soldier’s uniform specifically the same green uniform that appears in the opening of the movie in which we find out that Fernando is a deserting soldier. This particular costume of Violet a’s is a reminder of the key theme that runs throughout the film, the reversal of gender roles. The costume also holds symbolic value as well because soldiers are often associated with masculine traits such a bravery, strength, and aggression, three traits which are commonly reserved for only men. However, Trueba abolished this notion throughout the film and Violeta as a soldier helps facilitate his agenda. There are other masculine traits that Violeta takes on in the scene such a thin drawn on mustache. The mustache can be seen as another way in which Trueba tries to exemplify Violeta’s ability to be masculine. This addition to her appearance is important because a mustache can mark the transition from adolescence to manhood, but in Violeta’s case it helps to cement her desire to break away from the prescribed notion held in society of a woman or ideas of gender. Violeta’s costume can also be interpreted as a signifier of the desire of the women in the f ilm as well as portraying them as the sexual aggressors by placing Violeta in a position of power. If Violeta is in a position of power then Fernando’s costume places him in a position of inferiority. Fernando is presented in this sequence dressed in a French maid costume. It is a classic outfit

Thursday, May 14, 2020

How to Use Chou in French Conversation

If youre talking about cabbage in French, then youre going to need to know how to use the word  chou.  Pronounced shoo, the word  chou  can be used to describe a cabbage or as a term of endearment akin to darling or dear. Using  Chou  in Conversation As a vegetable, chou can be served grated raw in a salad, boiled then creamed with bacon bits, stuffed with milk-soaked bread, sausage, eggs, vegetables, and herbs or baked in a cabbage galette with herbs and lardons (hearty French smoked bacon). But, really, the options are only limited by the culinary imagination of Frances  talented regional and restaurant cooks. The use as a term of endearment  may derive from the pretty, frilly, green, slightly delicate Savoy cabbage that the French have a certain affection for. On va manger du chou. Were going to eat some cabbage.Salade de chou rouge  est un excellent example de la cuisine minceur de  Michel Guà ©rard. Red cabbage salad is an excellent example of [chef] Michel Guà ©rards slimming cuisine.Ça va mon [petit] chou? How are you, my darling (my sweet)? Related Words There are a number of related words with chou as their root, for example: un chouchou darling, pet  chouchouter (informal) to pamper, coddle  la choucroute sauerkraut (brine-marinated cabbage)les choux de Bruxelles Brussels sprouts These root  words also wind up in some common French expressions, such as: à ªtre dans les choux (informel) to be screwed up, lost, in trouble  faire chou blanc to draw a blank, to lead nowhereCest chou vert et vert chou.   Its green cabbage and cabbage green. [meaning, roughly: Its the same either way.] Additional Resources As you expand your  vocabulary, youll want to learn more ways to talk about food with your loved ones. French terms of endearmentFood in French

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Stratification According to Marx and Weber

Social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and wealth within a society. Social stratification relates to the socio-economic concept of class, consisting of the upper class, middle class, and lower class. Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes through the main indicator is occupation. This is the most practical and most effective means of encompassing the wide variety of economic and social elements that go to make up a person’s class through their education, status, income and power. Evidence shows that wealth is distributed unequally and that incomes vary from small to huge. The old idea of Britain’s class structure was comprised as a triangular shape; with increasing†¦show more content†¦However, this suggests that Britain’s class structure is becoming fragmented. On the other hand, Weberians suggests that the middle class is fragmented into competing status groups for example, professionals and managers. Zweig (1961) argued that a section of the working class has adopted the economic and cultural lifestyle of the middle class, the embourgeoisement thesis. Since the 1960s, skilled manual workers have seen an improvement in wages and better living standards, often exceeding those of some of the middle class. However, despite big improvements in living standards and lifestyles, there are still differences that separate affluent manual workers from the middle class which suggests that embourgeoisement has not occurred. For example, their high wages were only obtained through overtime and shift working. Also, lack fringe benefits and have limited promotion opportunities. This was shown in Goldthorpe and Lockwood’s famous study of a car factory in Luton (1969). However, they argue that there was signs of convergence between working class and middle class lifestyles, but concluded that, rather than an increase in the middle class, what had emerged was a new working class. Therefore, shows that the working class have fragmented into at least two different ways, firstly the traditional working class, in decline and typically situated in the North of England. Secondly, a new working class found in the newerShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast Marxist and Weberian Theories of Stratification1525 Words   |  7 PagesQ: Compare and Contrast Marxist and Weberian Theories of Stratification. The purpose of this essay is to compare, contrast and critically evaluate Marxist and Weberian theories of stratification. To do this effectively this essay must explain and consider the main features, claims and perspectives of both Karl Marx and Max Weber. O’Donnell (1992) defines social stratification as â€Å"the division of a society or group into hierarchically ordered layers. Members of each layer are considered broadly equalRead MoreMarx And Weber s Effect On The Society Of Individuals And For The Dynamics Of Institutions1462 Words   |  6 Pagestaking into consideration the criticisms of both Marx and Weber, the more satisfactory account of class comes from Weber. Firstly, Weber is writing in hindsight of Marx. Weber was writing 60 years after wrote his account of class therefore it is easier for Weber to consider Marx’s faults and improve them to make them more relevant to modern societies. ***reference****It is unrealistic to consider class on it’s own in modern societies, because as Weber proves, status and party are hugely influentialRead MoreIncome Inequality : The Perspectives Of Marx And Weber Essay1505 Words   |  7 PagesPerspectives of Marx and Weber In the United States, income inequality is drawing more and more attention from the media, sociologists, politicians, and everyday citizens like us since the economic difference during the past decades became more pronounced than before. Karl Marx and Max Weber both discussed their ideas of social inequality and addressed the relationship between inequality and social structure as an important theme in their work. 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AlthoughRead MoreThe Social Theory Of Sociology1525 Words   |  7 PagesBeing one of the youngest social sciences in comparison to others, sociology is continuing to develop and form to the beliefs and opinions of present and future generations. The definition of sociology is the methodical study of various societies. These societies are thus the sum of all individuals from small clusters to complex social organizations. Sociology studies societies with a scientific perspective, in order to achieve kn owledge concerning human society and ways to attain progress withinRead MoreConflict Theory926 Words   |  4 Pagestheories are perspectives in social science that emphasize the social, political or material inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is therefore a macro level analysis of society. Karl Marx is the father of the social conflict theory, whichRead MoreMarx, Max Weber And Emile Durkheim948 Words   |  4 PagesIn assessment of sociological theory it is imperative to our understanding of social theory that we analyze the ideologies of some prominent theorists such as Karl Marx, Max Weber and Émile Durkheim. Karl Marx’s philosophical ideals on society and class division are impactful in shaping ou r understanding of society. Inequality and social division is at the heart of Marx’s theory of society. Marx’s theorized that society is the history of class struggles. To him the fundamentally factor determiningRead MoreContemporary Theory: Stratification Essay examples1245 Words   |  5 PagesA major concern of modern-day theory would be the impacts of stratification within society. Social stratification is defined as the â€Å"hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class† (Dictionary.com 2014). Social stratification can be operationally defined â€Å"as the systematically unequal distribution of power, wealth, and status (Bowles 2013; Kerbo 2000). Stratification sets up that all known societies past and present â€Å"distribute its scarce and demanded goods and services

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Poetry anyalsis of the Root Cellar Essay Example For Students

Poetry anyalsis of the Root Cellar Essay Root Cellar After reading the poem written by Theodore Rotted, entitled Root Cellar, I envisioned a dark, scary, ghost story. The poem was very understandable to read and on the surface it explains vegetables in a root cellar. The text has a literal meaning of that but the figurative language Rotted used in his poem painted a very different picture then a plan root cellar, I saw dead and living things In the dark. Believe the poem Root Cellar is about more than just an underground pantry of vegetables, but instead Rotted is trying to tell a story of a scary place where things were still leaving ND he was frightened of this place. Voice, language, and imagery in Theodore Reroutes Root Cellar gave the feeling of horror and disgust. Rotted explains It is a dark looming place, smelly and old. The poem filled with words such as dank, dark, and manure. These words have a pessimistic tone. He hated the place he was speaking of. I believe the poem portraits a place where ghost are Inhabited and Rotted Is afraid and wishes to not go there. The title of the poem is Root Cellar. A root cellar is built on to a farmhouse and is used as natures way of storing fruits and vegetables and anything that needs to stay lolled. They can be excellent storage areas for other things as well. Unlike a basement a root cellar is not accessible from the house. You must leave the house to enter the root cellar. In this case things can be hidden away from public view. Secret things could have been going on down there that few could have ever see or know about. When Rotted says nothing would sleep in the first line, I started to imagine ghost or half dead things still living not resting. Then he describes the cellars environment by calling It dank as a ditch (1 The word dank means damp or humid. This secretive word gives the feeling of a place that is not comfortable to stay in. The environment was different then normal conditions and Rotted did not like to go down there and when had to. He did not linger down there long. The description of the bulbs hunting for chinks in the dark(2) is a great picture to Imagine. Hunt means to pursue so as to capture, and chinks are a narrow opening like a crack. This line supports the idea of a ghost story because it is commonly known that ghost hunt or haunt in the dark. Chinks can refer to ghost looking for a place out because they are refined to a certain place to haunt. When I think of ghost, I envision white sheets and chains hanging off them, and them moving In a relaxed hunched way Like zombies. In lines three and four Rotted further supported my thesis that the Root Cellar is about ghost; shoots dangled and drooped (3), lolling obscenely from mildewed crates (4). Dangled and drooped is which is talking about the ghost motion. Obscenely is defined as to be offensive to accepted standards. Ghosts are definitely offensive and not acceptable. People well sometimes move to a new home if they think a ghost inhabits their place. Mildew is armorial found in root cellars or damp places but the fact that it can fill the room with an awful smell. Rotted pointed out the mildewed crates not only to give descriptive picture of the sight but also to give the reader a smell of in that cellar. Everyone can identify with what mildew looks and smells like. The next line Rotted describes the things living in that root cellar as long yellow evil necks(5). .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .postImageUrl , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:hover , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:visited , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:active { border:0!important; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:active , .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4 .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1d97215f5c6c53b537a529b7c6b95bd4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Ballads Of Today EssayEvil is a very strong word to use to be talking Just about produce. I think Rotted was frightened by that root cellar and knew something more was down there. Evil means morally bad, wicked, and harmful. Ghosts are believed to be bad spirits. Not everyone who dies becomes a ghost, ghosts are seen as those who passed and are now back to revenge their death and cause harm to the one who is responsible for it. Root Cellar is an eleven line long poem and in the middle line Rotted makes a straight statement and ends with an explication mark. And what a congress of stinks! (6). The use of the explication mark makes this a very strong statement. The word cong ress, means a formal assembly to discuss problems. I find it very proving to the theme of ghost and other unwanted things. If Rotted wanted to call the produce n the root cellar a group or bunch he would have but instead he used the term congress which although is formal it still holds a negative interpretation from the audience because of its classification. Stinks is again a reference to the smell of the root cellar and it is not a positive. With the reputation of bad smelling terms and the explication mark at the end of this line leaves the reader to sense that Rotted is serious and is now stressing his negative feeling and fear toward the root cellar. Ghosts tend to stay around and haunt and torment the living unless you get someone to exterminate him or her. In the line roots ripe as old bait (7) Rotted is not talking about roots of the vegetables but is referring to the ghost. Bait is a lure, and can also mean to tease or torment. The ghosts were fully prepared and were ridiculing in that cellar. Ripe easily refers to fruits and vegetables but its plain definition states; sufficiently advanced, mature, and opportune. These ghosts were not a new addition to this cellar but are old. They have been down there for a long time and are quite ready and ripe for anyone to come in. I suppose if you believe in ghost then you have some idea of what they are made of. Some say they are nothing and can go through walls, and others believe they are slimy or gross like movies make them out to be, but then again all living things are different then there is probably different kinds of ghost. Rotted goes on to describing pulpy stems, rank, silo-rich (8). Pulp is the soft and moist part of a vegetable or fruit but really I think he Just using metaphoric terms to describe the ghosts. Their insides, like produce, could have a soft gooey consistency. Rank can be definition of rank states, and/or how Reroutes fear of that root cellar is getting stronger.

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

Keith Urban Defying Gravity free essay sample

Keith Urban is at an amazing place in his life right now. He puts on amazing shows that make you feel like you’re in the front row no matter where you are seated. In his personal life he has a beautiful wife, Nicole Kidman an a daughter who is just shy of her 1st birthday. He has also had an amazing music career which each album Keith has never let his fans down and he defiantly has please fans beyond what they thought was possible with his latest album, Defying Gravity. The album continues his amazing career with amazing music! The opening song â€Å"Kiss A Girl† is a great song to introduce you to the album. Continuing on listening to the album you will experience a great uplifting. Each and every song are fun to sing along to and get up and just dance! When you listen to it you will forget all your worries and issues and live in the moment with Keith. We will write a custom essay sample on Keith Urban: Defying Gravity or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A lot has happened in Keith life since his last album back in 2006. Keith is that kind of artist/ song writer that writes about what he’s going through and that’s no different with the album even though it’s a little harder to tell. The album is fun of very uplifting love songs from the fun to sing along to song, â€Å"If Ever I Could Love† to the beautiful ballad at the end, â€Å"Thank You† which is a note to his wife and how if it wasn’t for her he wouldn’t be where he is today. â€Å"Thank You† has that little something special about it that makes it really hard to forget and will make you want to listen to it over and over again. A fan favorite, and one of my personal favorites, is the remake of Rodney Foster’s, â€Å"I’m In†, will have you singing along after the 1st listen. Each and every person who listens to this album will be hooked right away. Overall an absolutely amazing album from Keith. It is my favorite yet from this amazing artist who has yet to let his fans down and probably never will either!

Monday, March 9, 2020

Strategic Management Toyota Japan

Strategic Management Toyota Japan Introduction Toyota is one of the most popular companies in the automobile industry. This company started from a very humble beginning, but due to strategic planning, it has managed to achieve its organizational goals. Japan is the company’s headquarter, and this being its parent branch it has played a major role in inspiring the establishment of other branches (Chester, 2004).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Management: Toyota Japan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Now that the company is ranked among the top organizations in the world, there is more work to be done to ensure that the position is retained. This is because there are other companies that are struggling to achieve the same goals. Currently Toyota manufactures a wide range of vehicles including Rav4, Prado, and Pajero among many others (Kendra, 2009). This paper focuses on Toyota’s company, particularly strategic methods and tool s that have led to its superior performance. Policies of Toyota Japan Every organization has its own tailor-made policies that all employees must adhere to, and this is meant to guarantee the achievement of organizational goals. Without clear policies, an organization is most likely to divert to other concerns that were not included in the master plan. It is therefore important to employ salient policies that would act as the guidelines when the going gets tough (Johnson Scholes, 2008). For instance, if a passenger decided to commute to a given destination and it happens that the vehicle breaks down, he/she will look for another mode of transport to ensure that he/she gets to the intended destination. According to Dess and Allan (2006), Toyota mainly focuses on long-term goals regardless of whether those goals will hinder the achievement of short-term goals. This was evidenced back in 1973 during the oil crisis that caused many customers who had purchased Toyota models to replace t hem with other models. This was because the big cars were consuming a lot of fuel and thus, were not considered pocket friendly. In the years that followed, the company had to pay high taxes for it to export vehicles to other markets. The management of Toyota thus decided to collaborate with General Motors (GM). This move was logical because it would help in cutting back on the costs that were incurred on the exports.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, Bremner and Dawson (2003) argue that Toyota was initially established as Toyoda and thus the brand name had to be changed for this company to be assimilated with its regional market. It was perceived that the initial brand name was not appealing to the local consumers probably because of its sound. It was then proposed that the brand name be renamed to Toyota, which sounded much better and uplifted the rep utation of the logo and the brand. This approach was logical because it made it easy for Toyota to penetrate the Asian market due to its familiarity and association with the local dialects. At Toyota, the processes of production flow in a sequential manner and this is meant to unveil any underlying problems that can cause the quality of its products to be compromised. The policies of Toyota clearly states that in case a problem or a fault is discovered in the course of production, the processes should be halted until the problem has been solved. In the year 2009, Toyota recalled quite a number of vehicles that were believed to be having faulty accelerator pedals. Although the initiative cost the company dearly, it was considered to be noble because the image the company would have been tainted and the monetary fine would have been heftier (Valdes-Dapena, 2010). Lynch (2006) points out that strategic management in an organization’s set up requires collective participation of a ll the employees. This aspect is greatly emphasized at Toyota in Japan. This is because if decisions were made in a hurry, the participants would not grasp anything that is contained in the plan. The gradual process of making decisions is important because it creates room for the options provided to be analyzed. Besides, dialogue prepares the employees and the other stakeholders to be prepared for the changes that may cause changes regarding how things are done. Likewise, Toyota’s head office has established indicators that are used to dictate when the level of production should be increased and vice versa. Kendra (2009) agrees that this is because the automobile industry is a very dynamic sector and if the vehicles that are manufactured within a specified period are not sold, they will accumulate as dead- stock.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Management: Toyota Japan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This implies that Toyota must regularly analyze the relationship between demand and supply by referring to its inventory system; this is through lean manufacturing. For instance, when the oil crisis struck in 1973, then it would have been illogical for the company to continue making the big trucks while it was apparent that the market was moving towards a new trend. Apparently, the demand of Toyota Prius is on the increase compared to other models. This argument has been cemented by the financial reports of 2010, which clearly indicate the sales of this particular vehicle model had increased (Micheline, 2010). Possible Causes of Future Changes When referring to strategic management, it is important to understand why the changes come about. The major inhibitor of changes is the environment that businesses exist. This is to say that organizations can be influenced to embrace the changes with the aim of conserving our environment. International organizations are exerting a lot of pr essure on manufacturers to make products using materials that are not harmful to the environment (Johnson Scholes, 2008). As far as this issue of environment is concerned, Toyota has had to adjust itself because there have been numerous awareness campaigns on the importance of eco-friendly products. Toyota therefore realized that if it did not adopt the new trend, it would soon be ejected out of the automobile business. Vehicles have been found to be the most notorious agents of pollution and thus, the manufacturers have been advised to come up with models that emit minimal amounts of carbon (Lynch, 2006). Toyota has already introduced hybrid plug-in vehicles, which are powered by a lithium battery and gasoline simultaneously. This suggests that such vehicles are fuel-efficient and at the same time eco-friendly. This is what the consumers in the automobile industry have been looking for. Toyota has therefore upped its game by integrating the needs of the consumers with their produc ts.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also obvious that the stiff competition in the automobile industry have also played a major role in inducing Toyota to employ a strategic plan. Chester (2004) points out that other companies like Ford are also making fuel-efficient vehicles besides Nissan and Honda brands. In business world, an organization must be on the look out to spot the emerging trends or risk being left out. Strategic management is purely driven by speculations because most people might think that Toyota is overreacting, but then if this company was to sit back and wait for the day when the demand for electric vehicles will swell, then it is bound to fail in its mission. This is because opportunities tend to favor the entities that are more crafty and prepared. In fact, this period is used to evaluate Toyota’s preparedness in handling the changes. This is because the company needs to be certain that the plans will work in its favor. However, it is important to have a backup plan because other cha nges could occur and hinder the realization of an organization’s mission (Dess Allan, 2006). For instance, the recent earthquake has greatly affected Toyota’s branch in Japan. This latest development reveals that humankind has no control over nature and thus backup plans should be put in place to ensure organizational goals are realized. There is a common phrase at Toyota that puts its managers under obligation to familiarize themselves with the situations as they unfold. This requires them to spend ample time with the employees. This is thought as the surest way of ensuring that all stakeholders are committed to the success of the organization. Competitive Positioning Toyota is completely committed to improving the quality of its products, but this initiative has cost the corporation a lot of money because the vehicles that are eco-friendly require more resources to manufacture. However, Vlasic and Fackler (2008) state that the situation is expected to remedy itself, as more customers purchase the new breed of vehicles. Among the changes incorporated lately, include the making of automobile engines that are powered by electricity and gasoline. This has placed Toyota at the top of the rankings compared to similar vehicles that are being manufactured by her competitors such as Ford. This is because Toyota’s models tend to be unique because the other brands that employ the same approach are only powered by electricity. Besides, Toyota has introduced automatic parking systems in its vehicles that are meant to assist Motorists Park their vehicles hustle-free. More features are yet to be incorporated in Toyota models because customers make their choice of a model depending on its specifications (Kendra, 2009). Furthermore, the approach of value improvement has really helped Toyota to reach greater heights. Similarly, the customers of Toyota have responded positively because they are always interested in unique products. Toyota has therefore wo rked had to earn its recognition as a household name. In fact, the government of Japan has acknowledged the progress of Toyota and this has resulted in Toyota being awarded the contract of manufacturing and maintaining the motorcade that is normally used by the mayor. This noble gesture by the government is truly an honor because it acts as an endorsement that will continue to develop the company’s portfolio (Valdes-Dapena, 2010). Other Open opportunities Toyota is looking for other areas that are yet to be exploited. Valdes-Dapena (2010) asserts that the need to diverse has been brought by the speculations that the future markets of vehicles could decline as new technologies continue to be developed in the transport sector. Toyota has already proposed a joint venture with Mitsubishi to manufacture airplanes for regional airlines. This is a smart move because the demand for air transport is increasing and only the entities that will align themselves to the growth of that indu stry will reap the benefits. For Toyota to make it in this venture, it has to observe the possible competitors such as Boeing, identify what is missing in their products, and incorporate the missing concept in its aircraft models. Although Toyota is a mature organization in the automobile industry, that growth is yet to be realized in the new ventures and thus, patience is required for growth to be experienced. Other areas that are potential for exploitation by Toyota include the manufacture of healthcare products such as assistive aids for the disabled (Kendra, 2009). Marketing The strategy employed by an organization in marketing its products is what helps in uplifting the image of its products (Lynch, 2006). Toyota has been able to penetrate the local market through re-branding. According to Micheline (2010), Toyota has managed to thrive in automobile business by developing models that are meant for both low and high-end markets. The success of Toyota would not have been realized if there was no balance between the two markets. The vehicles intended for low-end market have lesser specifications compared to the models intended for high-end markets. The Century Royal is a particular model that is specifically designed for the mayor of Japan. If Toyota were to concentrate on luxury vehicles, its sales would decline gradually because there are more prospects in the low-end market. In addition, Toyota has been using the field events such as motor sports to market itself. The company incorporates its models such as the Lexus in the local races including Formula 3, Super GT, and formula Nippon. Toyota makes money by making the engines of automobiles that participate in these races and uses them as an avenue for advertising itself. Engaging in the races was not enough and thus, another strategy had to be established to ensure the local market for engines remained stable. This entailed developing the models that are appropriate for racing. Besides, more talents had to be developed to ensure that the sport did not run out of talented drivers. This goal was achieved by establishing a program for nurturing drivers into seasoned motor sport drivers. The program is commonly known as TDP (Toyota Young Drivers Program) (Johnson Scholes, 2008). The technological institute was established to act as a reservoir of skills that are needed in this company. Though the initial founders of this initiative are non-existent, the project has served its intended purpose. The talents are derived from learning institutions, such as high schools and other tertiary institutions. The students who demonstrate competitiveness while still in high school are offered scholarship opportunities to enable them pursue further education and thereafter use their skills while working at Toyota Corporation. The initiative is more of a corporate social responsibility program. The program can be used as a succession plan for Toyota because the current crop of employees will one day retire and thus, they will have to be replaced by new skilled employees. Although the programs are expensive, the money is paid back when the trained individuals are absorbed into the company. Likewise, Toyota has its own rugby team known as Verblitz team. This team is sponsored by Toyota and therefore is a medium of marketing. This is done by making the players put on jerseys that are printed with the company logo and emblem. Johnson Scholes (2008) argue that the education programs are not only focused on inspiring upcoming talents, but also the existing employees. This is because the changes in the environment cause their skills to depreciate and thus they need to be regularly updated. As time moves by, the approaches that were once used as solutions cease to be useful and thus, new approaches have to be brought on board and this can only be acquired by investing in continuous learning to promote organizational development. Aspects of Strategic Management Goal Setting Toyota has been able to achieve its organizational goals because it had set the goals from the start. The managers and employees of this corporation are aware of what needs to be done to get to the company’s destiny. The goals are categorized into two: long-term and short-term. Short-term goals take less than five years to be experienced while long-term goals take more than five years. When the company was established the founders had one long-term goal, and it involved setting up a learning institution and in fact the goal took more than twenty years to be realized. Besides, Toyota had short-term goals that included increasing its market share within Japan and beyond its national boarders. This goal was near from being accomplished when the oil crisis struck and temporary goals had to be set (Vlasic Fackler, 2008). Analysis Analysis is another important aspect of strategic management because it enables an organization to get a clear picture of the happenings as they unfold and make t he necessary changes to be able to cope with the challenges (Lynch, 2006). Toyota has been very observant of the situation in the industry. Being analytic has helped Toyota to understand the needs of the customers. There are other companies in Japan that deal with automobiles. These other companies are competitors and Toyota has to analyze their operations and as well as their products. By being analytical, Toyota has been able to identify other opportunities that are yet to be exploited. However, before Toyota decided to venture into other resources it must have analyzed its strengths and weaknesses. This is because if the weaknesses outweighed the strengths then there is no point of venturing into other fields such as aviation, which are more complicated, and very demanding. Strategy Formation According to Dess and Allan (2006), strategic management requires an organization to have a clear vision of future expectations. Toyota has been visionary on the market and that is why it ha s developed options of venturing into other areas. When the options were first drafted, they must have been allocated priorities depending on the availability of resources that are needed to implement the decisions. The electric vehicles were accorded the first priority because the market is changing drastically unless Toyota evolves with the market, then its products would be rendered useless in the automobile industry. The other options implemented include the development of robots used in the healthcare and entertainment industries. The above stated priorities were implemented because Toyota has the ability and the capacity that is required to implement them. This implies that Toyota has enough work forces skilled in this sector because if there were no skilled personnel, then the idea would have to wait until when the situation was favorable. As stated earlier, the plan of making an aircraft is a long-term goal, but then negotiations are underway and they involve other like-min ded entities. Mitsubishi is an appropriate partner in this venture because it also deals with automobiles and therefore the two parties are compatible with each other. Currently, Toyota needs to merge its resources with those of Mitsubishi in order to realize its goals. However, this partnership may not last long because each entity would want to be independent in future (Micheline, 2010). It is therefore certain that there will be a merger between Toyota and Mitsubishi. Toyota has been successful in its mission because it has involved its members who include employees and stakeholders in decision-making processes; this approach must be reflected in its merger with Mitsubishi. Strategy Implementation Once a strategy has been established, an organization needs to embark on the mission of implementing the decisions that are contained in the strategy. Before implementing strategy, an organization must review the available resources just to be sure they are in good shape to deliver the desired results (Johnson Scholes, 2008). For Toyota to be able to challenge its competitors, it must have upgraded its equipments to meet international standards. The staff at Toyota has been inspired to improve their skills. The availability of skilled personnel has cautioned the company from outsourcing its tasks. The main reason behind Toyota’s success lies under its goal setting strategies. From the look of things, Toyota has all along remained committed to fulfilling its long-term goals. Similarly, other companies in this industry have diverted their initial plans at the onset of challenges. It is this attribute of soldiering on that has enabled Toyota to excel in its ventures. In strategic management, it is important to note that short-term challenges and solutions do not last long, and it is therefore important to focus on long-term solutions. When the environmental and international organizations raised concerns about the amounts of carbon emitted by vehicles, Toyota thought of a solution that could solve the problem entirely. Short-term solutions are very expensive to implement because the processes have to be repeated regularly and they may not work as expected (Dess Allan, 2006). In this regard, Toyota established a production system commonly known as Toyota Production System (TPS).The system is used to manage inventories and in improving the quality of production. By having such a system in place, the company can be certain that there are minimal errors and that the customers only get what they require. When the suppliers of Toyota deliver the raw materials that are to be used in the manufacture of automobiles, the TPS is invoked to evaluate the materials and components needed and discard the others. In fact, this idea was borrowed from a very different field and hence it had to be configured to meet the needs of Toyota. Leadership at Toyota The success of Toyota is owed to its efficient leadership structures. The mangers at Toyota have go od working relationships with their employees in their respective departments. This enables the two parties to communicate effectively and thus, move collectively towards a common destiny. This kind of interaction favors teamwork because it strengthens the bondage among employees and their superiors. From another concept, it favors innovation because the employees are free to incorporate their skills into their tasks (Johson Scholes, 2008). In fact, at Toyota, every employee is regarded as his/her own inspector – employees should not wait until the supervisor is physically present to implement a decision when things are not in the right order. This has instilled a strong sense of belonging, which makes employees to work as if they owned the company. Respect is highly emphasized at Toyota and this means that everyone commands respect regardless of his/her position in the company. Conclusion Toyota has emerged as one of the most successful companies in the automobile industry. Having defined goals has helped Toyota to overcome the challenges as opposed to other companies that have resorted to remaining dormant. For the current success to be retained, Toyota must remain focused because the competitors are also designing new models that are intended to compete with those of Toyota, and hence more efforts must be directed towards remaining ahead of the game. Besides, the approaches that have worked in Japan’s branch should be extended to regional offices so that the entire organization can become uniform, such that the images of the other branches reflect the image of the parent branch. References Vlasic, B. and Fackler, M., 2008. Car slump jolts Toyota halting 70yrs of gain. New York Times. [online]. Bremner, B.B. and Dawson, C., 2003. Can anything stop Toyota? An inside look at how its reinventing the auto industry. Business week. November 17. Chester, D., 2004. Lexus: The Relentless pursuit. Singapore: John Wiley Sons. Dess, G. L. and Alan, B. E. , 2006. Strategic Management: Text and Cases. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K., 2008. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 8th ed. London: Prentice Hall. Kendra, M., 2009. Toyota passes GM as world’s largest automaker. The Washington Post. January 22. Lynch, R. (2006), Corporate Strategy. 4th ed. London: Prentice Hall. Micheline, M., 2010. Toyota pays its $16.4 million fine over pedals. The New York Times. [online]. Valdes-Dapena, P., 2010. Witnesses: Toyota problems could be electronics. CNN. [online].

Friday, February 21, 2020

Project Management Institute's Project of the Year Award Essay

Project Management Institute's Project of the Year Award - Essay Example Project Management Institute’s Project of the Year Award 1. Summary of how the project manager or team exhibited exceptional and ethical project management practices. The official website of the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Project of the Year (POY) Award reveals that the organization envisions recognizing and acknowledging the exemplary contribution of nominated project teams in terms of noteworthiness, relevance and adherence to specified standards of their respective projects. As explicitly indicated, â€Å"the PMI Project of the Year (POY) Award recognizes the accomplishments of a project and the involved project team for superior performance and execution of exemplary project management† (Project Management Institute, 2011). In this regard, the winner for 2010 POY Award was the National Ignition Facility Project was deemed to be â€Å"managed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (and) was the largest ever scientific construction project completed by the U.S. Department of Energy, resulting in the world's largest and most energetic laser system. The design and project commissioning were accomplished by a worldwide collaboration among governments, academia, and many industrial partners. It will serve a broad scientific community exploring new technologies in energy production and new frontiers in astrophysics, materials science, and nuclear science† (YouTube, 2010). The project team exhibited exceptional and ethical project management practice by complying and adhering to the foundation standards and consistent with the evaluation criteria, to wit: â€Å"(1) met or exceeded Owner/Client’s needs as evidenced by a letter from the Owner/Client; (2) met or improved on budget and schedule performance when compared with original established budget and schedule goals; (3) demonstrated originality and uniqueness of applied project management techniques, including innovative application of practices/methods; (4) exhibited techn ical aspects and advancement of the project management profession through effective application of the nine PMBOK ® Knowledge Areas: (5) demonstrated complexity and challenges of the project and unusual conditions, issues, and barriers requiring special management team action and performance; and (6) identified Risks and established plans to overcome them† (PMI, 2010). In this regard, the National Ignition Facility Project envisioned focusing on nuclear fusion that is harnessed to create limitless and carbon free energy. The project was reported to help scientists create nuclear fusion in the laboratory setting. Accordingly, through collaborative efforts of government, academia and industry, the project was revealed to have been instrumental in fuelling innovation that enabled the establishment of the largest and highest energy laser and the largest optical instrument ever. 2. Discuss the role of the project manager or team, the organizational setting, the recipient’s approach to project integration management, and obstacles that had the potential of adversely impacting the triple constraint. The project manager, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in joint efforts and collaboration with the Department of Energy, was reported to have been instrumental in the â€Å"design through commissioning (that) was accomplished by a worldwide collaboration among governments, academia, and many industrial partners. NIF provides an experimental platform for accessing

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Contract and procurement management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Contract and procurement management - Case Study Example The budget of Ruralshire County is short and it is expecting high quality of services. Traditionally, only a small number of local contractors have the high capacity (100 seater) vehicles for these routes and because the routes are long they are challenging in terms of the ability of vehicles to keep to time, especially in adverse traffic and weather conditions. In keeping with wider practice, bus and coach operators deploy older vehicles to school transport and pupils can expect to travel in vehicles more than 10 years old.  The client is unhappy at the high cost and unreliability of a cluster (8) of long-distance routes transporting around 700 secondary age pupils from the city of Maynard Kaines (located outside the county) to Amplewealth (the county town) some 22 miles away where these children attend four local grammar schools. The combined cost of these contracts is 1.1M per annum. This report intends at identifying the important of this project. This report also intends at identifying the important of reverse e-auctions for the upcoming project. Moreover, this report ends at presenting a business case that identifies the benefits, costs, risks and gaps of the upcoming project (Worksafe.vic.gov.au, 2015). Effective procurement is a key to provide best services to businesses and customers. Selection process of suppliers is a way to identify a best person or company for a service. There are a lot if procurement approaches to select vendors to get service and goods. There are a lot of possible re-procurement approaches to achieve the business objectives mentioned in our case study of home-school transportation. In our case it is important to reduce the costs associated with the transportation of children from homes to schools. The award of new contract is strongly associated with the cost effectiveness of the transportation coupled with less travel time (Imagination.lancs.ac.uk, 2015).

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Relationship between Transport and Environment

Relationship between Transport and Environment The relationship between transport and environment is paradox in nature. From one perspective transportation is categorised in two areas, passenger transportation which consists of all transport of individual, refers to all forms of public and private transport of commuters, passenger baggage transport whether scheduled or unscheduled. The second category of transportation is freight movements meaning the movement of raw materials, of work in progress, finished goods from supplier to consumer and of returns of used and new products back to supplier. Freight movement is also consists of movement of agricultural products (food, fertilizers) and animals. Freight movement is progressively intermodal and multimodal and makes use of local, regional, national and international operations. Transportation causes a considerable amount of harmful emissions, which causes problems that become harmful and costly to the society and environment. According to EU analysis 35% of freight transport acco unts for eight percent of external transport cost to the GDP in European Union (EEA, 2001). The transport sector contributes to 30 percent of the CO2 emissions in OECD countries. 32 percent of Co2 emitted is accounted for by freight transport, while passenger transport accounts for 48 percent of emissions of CO2. This share of transport emissions however increases yearly. In this paper I will be focusing on freight transport (goods and services) impact on the environment. Based on different mode of transport which includes air cargo, shipping, rail, trucking, pipelines and intermodal terminals, the effects on the environment are majorly air pollution, water pollution, noise, global climate concerns, accidents, land take and habitat fragmentation both for humans and animals. The effects of freight transport on the environment affects the interrelation of the environmental system which is between the following:- Atmosphere (air quality) Hydrosphere (water quality) Lithosphere (soil quality) Biosphere (living organisms) In the process of defining the environmental impacts of freight movement, three components could be considered: Firstly the environmental stressors which include pollutants, noise, or exotic and toxic species are released in natural ecosystems. Each tonne of goods transported adds an additional stress on the environment. The cumulative amount of stress placed on the environment depends on the quantity of goods and the destination and distance they are transported. The total stress can be calculated as the quantity of goods times the distance carried multiplied by the stress per tonne. In addition the mode of transportation used is also put in to consideration. The total stress is also determined by the nature of the receiving environment. Visible characteristics such as physical ecosystem characteristics, how populated is the area affected, and how critical or endangered species in the receiving ecosystem will determine the willingness to avoid the impact and payments. This paper will be focusing more on the first component primarily to the other two components, with a little attention to the third component. Overview of Freight Movement Impacts on the Environment Air pollution: Air pollution is considerably seen has the most dangerous environmental threat caused by transportation. Highway vehicles (i.e. cars, trucks, vans e.t.c), marine engines (i.e. propels ships, boats), locomotive (i.e. diesel, coal trains e.t.c), and aircraft are the main causes of pollutant which affects air quality causing damage to human heath and the climatic changes in the environmental system, all these includes gas and emissions that are particulate matters. All these toxic air pollutant are closely related with the cause of cancer, cardiovascular (heart arteries, capillaries and veins), respiratory and neurological diseases. Air pollution reduces the availability of oxygen which affects the blood stream, and can be extremely harmful to public health if Carbon Monoxide (CO) is inhaled; also nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emission from different modes of transportation when inhaled reduces lung function, affects the respiratory immune defence system and put humans at higher risk of respiratory problems. Acid rain is caused by the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere from different acid compounds that when they get mixed in the cloud water. Acid rain has serious disruption on the built environment, limits agricultural crop yields and causes deforestation. Acid rain also causes smog, affecting the visibility in the environment having adverse effect on the quality of life and less attraction of tourist activities. Emission from vehicle exhausts as well as non exhaust like dust raise due to vehicle and road abrasion affects air quality in such areas. The impact of the modes of transportation on air quality Air transport: air transport emission during take off and landing contributes to air pollution and global warming. Although emission from air transportation are minor relatively to other means of transportation of goods and services, the rate at which air transportation is adding to the emission from transportation is faster than all other emission source, due to the increase in air travels and air freight. (Vedantham and Oppenheimer 1994, p 1). From a survey two thirds of air freight is carried by commercial passenger flights, and estimated increases in air freight is expected to be distributed through passenger flights. (Snape and Metcalfe p. 176). Low level emission is recorded during take off and landing of air transport, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide during high altitude flight are pollutants to the atmosphere and ozone layer. These pollutants with other compounds could lead to smog. Road/trucking: the movement of freight by road or truck as a great impact on the air quality. The longer a truck is driven the more emission it impacts on the environment. Emission from both exhaust and non exhaust, like the abrasion between truck and road raises dust. Carbon Monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are all effects of emission on the environment. Rail: rail transportation is the less damaging mode of land transportation when compared with trucking. The effect of rail transport on the environment is determined greatly on the source of power generation for the train, like in Europe most of the trains are powered by electricity. In some other part of the world like Nigeria, trains are powered by coal (locomotive) this generates a lot of pollutant to the environment. Shipping: freight transportation through shipping are not a major source of air pollution. Nevertheless, most of ships are powered by combustion engines, so they do emit air pollutants. Emission occurs both underway on the waters and while docking. Pipelines: this mode of transportation is usually safe and free of air pollution, except in cases of accidents, pipe bursting or vandalized. Apart from the pumps been used to pump or compress oil or gas, which emit air pollutant like all other machine does. Water pollution: Generally most of the other mode of transportation does not really have effect on water quality, except for shipping and in land water ways transport, and also in times of accidents i.e pipeline bursting, car accident entering the waters, oil spill e.t.c. The activities of shipping are increasing because of the increase in demand for shipping. Emissions from marine transport as also increased as well; the main effects of marine transport on water subsequently arise from dredging, waste disposal, ballast waters and oil spills. Dredging is essential to build and maintain water depth for ease of shipping operations and port accessibility. Dredging affects the marine biological diversity. Waste disposal of plastics at sea is a major source of environmental harm, since the material are both sizeable (buoyant) and persistent i.e. fishing boats discard old nets, and lines, which are usually made of plastic. Ballast waters are used in containers to keep the ship balance when the ship is empty of cargos. It is used to control the stability and draught and to modify the ship centre of gravity in relation to the cargo and the difference in weight distribution. The water ballast is usually discharge in to the water and replaced with freight. These ballast waters are mixed and contaminated with oil and possibly with other wastes in the tank. The discharge is therefore water pollution to the waters. Oil cargo vessel accidents are one of the most heart breaing problems of maritime transport activities due to oil spills Oil. Road transportation is usually not a factor to consider when it comes to water pollution, but issues like road accidents and vehicle exhaust are both sources of oil and hazardous chemicals which run off the road into surface and ground by rain waters, into seas and ocean these are all direct and indirect causes of water pollution. Noise: Noise pollution refers to the unpleasant irregular and chaotic sounds. It traumatize the hearing organ, its unpleasant and disturbing character are serious threat to the quality of life, noise contributes to such health problems that affects the quality of life such as stress, sleep disturbances, cardio vascular disease, and hearing loss. Surveys show that noise pollution affects people more directly than any other form of pollution. German experience has found that as people become annoyed about noise, they become aware of other environmental pollution problems as well (Kà ¼rerp. 493). And also long term exposure to noise levels greater than 75db seriously hampers hearing and has a significant discomfort to human physical and psychological existence. Trucking: there is different size of trucks causing noise pollution at different scale. Trucks are considered to be a more significant source of noise than other modes of freight transport. Rail: rail freight movement is a lesser noise pollutant when compared to trucks. Air Transport: people living or working around airports suffer from major nuisance from the noise pollution generated during landing and taking off of planes, traffic congestion and other dangers of air crashes. It is a major nuisance to those who live or work in the vicinity of airport. Climatic change All the activities from different mode of freight transportation and passenger transport industry have lead to the emission of several million tons of gases into the atmosphere every year. Gasses, dusts from contact from road and tire cohesion and ash like substances from different modes of transport like lead (Pb), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), silicon tetraflouride (SF6), nitrogen oxides (NOx),benzene and volatile components (BTX), heavy metals (zinc, chrome, copper and cadmium) and particulate matters (ash, dust) as lead to climatic change when mix in the cloud waters. Land take and soil quality The construction of transportation infrastructures and facilities has an impact on the layer of urban landscape. The construction of roads, airport, and rail ways take up significant land space in the environment, in most cases displacing people of their habitat and farm land. Airport takes up space, and discourages people from living in areas close to the airport. Water transport displaces some organism from their habitat, and also dredging is bad for the water and soil organism. Dredging causes soil around the water to be contaminated. Green Movement of Freight The environmental effect of freight movement has caused a lot of harm and changes in the environmental system. Due to all these impacts, some companies have come together separately and some as a group working towards reducing the effects of freight movement on the environment. There lots of freight movement lacking fast and efficient transport underpinning the Global economy. Globally road transport is the most proffered mode of freight movement but rising traffic volumes cause congestion, pollution and extra costs. There are alternatives route which make more economic and environmental sense like rail, sea and inland waterways. Alternative forms of transport are greener, cleaner and even cheaper over time, but most manufacturers and producers and hauliers are not really interested in investing in change. Here are some of the companies investing in alternative green, cleaner and even sometimes cheaper mode of transport:- Damco: is one of the worlds leading company in rendering freight movement and supply chain management services. For more than 30 years Damco have been providing her customers all over the world with transportation and logistics solution. In the process of Damco working on her supply chain expertise extensively, Damco recognize and implements solutions for reducing carbon emissions in your supply chain. The extra advantages of conducting a Supply Chain Carbon Check helps the company have a lower carbon emission level based on best practises within the monitored period. The Supply Chain Carbon Check (SCCC): aides companies in assessing and reducing their supply chain carbon footprint. Damco conducts Supply Chain Carbon Check projects globally for many global companies from various industries. Through increased supply chain efficiency, the emission of CO2 can be reduced with the process of SCCC projects. It also reduces the cost of supply chain. Powered by the partnership with First Climate, Damco offers its clients the opportunity to offset their unavoidable CO2 emissions. Damcos Supply Chain Carbon Dashboard: is a tool use in able to reporting of carbon emissions on a periodic basis. Through the companies new Supply Chain Carbon Dashboard platform, Damco delivers a unique value proposition, assisting other companies in understanding their overall supply chain carbon emissions. By zeroing in on a particular level of emission levels, the Carbon Dashboard immediately allows companies to indentify carbon hotspots in their supply chain. This will help such companies to determine how and what to do to reduce and minimize their carbon footprint, in response to the effects of carbon emission on the climatic change. Damcos Packaging Optimization Service: this service helps in reducing environmental impact of freight movement, by implementing packages that suit companys end to end needs, reducing the number of trucks or containers needed. Damco as a company is able to achieve this new service by partnering with Supply Chain Optimizers (SCO) to deliver a unique Packaging Optimization service. Norbert-Dentressangle: is a freight forwarding company that operates in over 50 countries and across 3 continents. Norbert Dentressangle offers experienced and committed freight forwarding expertise and also work in cooperation with network of specialist partners and channel the transports of goods and services throughout the world using road, sea and air. Norbert Dentessangle provides transport and logistic network solutions that extends across Europe. In Norbert Dentressangle commitment in reducing the companys environmental impact on society, they have taken some measures and obtained accreditation of relevant environmental organisation body like ISO 14001 environmental certification for all the companys sites in Europe. The company is the leading owners of Europes No.1 HGV fleet, in reducing the green house gas emissions from trucks and other transport modes by the company, the company has kept a firm commitment and also believed trucks are not the problem, but form part of the solution. In showing their commitment the company developed some strategies in reducing the impact of their activities on the environment: The companys first strategy was to obtain ISO 14001 environmental certification for all their European sites. The companys sites meet up with stringent environmental management standards, these standards includes several dimensions, like complaisance with regulations, monitoring and measuring energy/water consumption, discards and waste all under the ISO 14001. The company carries out measurement of their consumption of natural and energy resources and reporting on waste treatment. Out of the companys 192 logistic sites, 79 are ISO certified. Truck/ Driving (Eco Driving) Hiring and training of responsible drivers in economical driving also know has eco-driving. Efficient driving that reduces fuel consumption over the same distance of freight movement. In the past decades engine technology has improved, with many drivers not adapting wit changes. Ecodriving offers lots of benefits, including GHG emissions reductions, fuel cost savings, as well as better safety. Working closely with their customers the company is able to optimise their transport plans and loading of associated vehicles. Also Norbert Dentressangle carries out RD projects in partnership with truck manufacturers, with primary objective on creating alternative technologies (innovation) to the diesel engine. The company renews her fleets of vehicle (85% of the companys fleets meets the Euro IV and Euro V standards) periodically to meet EU emission standards. Innovations like: increasing the level of aerodynamics (introduction of deflectors in roofing /lateral,feul efficient standard equipments in all vehicles average fuel efficiency gain of 1.5 l/100 km; tear drop style aerodynamic bodywork which has been tested in the UK: with proven estimated fuel efficiency gain of 5% estimate). Optimising transmission systems: purchases of automatic gearboxes which improve fuel efficiency in driving standard combined with standard equipment in all vehicles: a tested and proven statistics of an average fuel efficiency gain of 1.5 l/100 km). Investing in trucks by purchasing parts reducing rolling resistance (newly produced low-energy tyres by Michelin Energy) The company procures fuel economy device like Stop-Start technology, this device stops the engine from working when the trucks come to a stop, is made available as standard in all trailers purchased from major manufacturers, this new development as recorded an estimated fuel saving of 3% 5%. The company provides alternative multimodal transport solutions where possible. Either combining rail/sea/river/road in different channels. The company reduces carbon emission by carrying out proper packaging of freight goods, reducing the number of trucks and containers needed. Improved transport capacity (ambient and temperature controlled double-deck trailers). Testing alternative technologies to the diesel engine like hybrid technology innovation, being tested on four different prototype trailers in 2011: the following recordings and observations were made: 20% fuel saving efficiency, reduction of about 30% in pollutant emissions, less noise pollution. Carbon Calculator In the effort of measuring carbon emissions, given the fact that in 2013 the European regulations will make it compulsory for all companies registered to measure and publish their carbon emissions. Norbert Dentressangle with the help of its internal team has gone a step further in designing and developing a carbon calculator reliable in measuring emissions produced by the company and her customers during transport activities. The calculator analyse different types of information like mileage, diesel consumption, load weight, content in order to produce to indicators which are: Gross CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions/ tonne per kilometre DPS International DPS international is a global logistic company that has grown to become one of the most advance vehicle routing and scheduling systems service providers in the world. The company is the leading developer of desktop solutions by creating a state-of-the-art desktop solution called (LogiX) and also recently introduced their newly produced web based pay-as-you-go routing and scheduling system, logixcentral. In the effort of the company providing its clients with fleet efficiency, DPS has now developed a module to ensure her client are able to measure their fleets carbon emissions and the impact of introducing new and efficient fuel and emission saving vehicle types, and reducing mileage and numbers of vehicles. For several years the companys customers have been able to reduce their carbon emissions by using the state-of -the art DPS LogiX routing and scheduling software to optimise their vehicle usage. In 2006, from published results, DPS customers were able to save around, 15,000 tonne s of carbon by using LogiX software. DPS Saving Calculator: With the aide of this device companies can estimate how much carbon emissions they are contributing to pollution, and how they could reduce both cost of operations and in relations to carbon emissions by using the DPS calculator. DPS calculator could be downloaded from the companys website under the Financial and Carbon Savings (FACS) link. In show of DPS commitment to reducing green house gas emissions, the Managing Director (MD) Paul Palmer made note in his statement in 3rd April, 2007 for DPS UK to become carbon neutral. The company have worked closely with Climate Care organisation to offset all carbon emissions generated over the past years from our energy use within the companys office and also from the business travel. Due to the use of LogiXcentral over the web, DPS has seen some of her customers reduce their fleets of vehicles from at least (20 to 30 vehicles) to as few as ten vehicles. This reduction in vehicles as offset the cost of software licence (up to  £50,000), computer hardware (laptops and desktop); maintenance agreement (monthly maintenance and upgrades); internal IT support and upgrades (web site maintenance and upgrades). CONCLUSION Basically the major effects of transportation on the environment generally are freight movements. Road contributes a major share of pollutants relatively to other modes. Although air transport has some contradiction with passenger transportation, most goods moved by air is done on commercial flights. The increasing effects of global warming, has been a major wake up call for several organisation in reducing the factors causing global warming. Freight movement is major contributor, with proper awareness and constant innovative solutions the world can remain a better place. Question 3 Fourth Party Logistic Operator (4PL) What is a Fourth Party Logistics operator (4PL) Fourth part logistics companies serve as consultants that integrate the relationship between the principal company and transportation companies and one or more third party logistics companies to make sure all operations are running well. 4PLs render several levels of responsibility, which varies from advice on choosing the best companies, right up to the day-to-day management of essential logistical tasks being performed for the principal companies. Fourth Party Logistics (4PLs) was born originally in the 1990s, by the consulting firm Accenture. The definition of a 4PLs as since then evolved from being a consulting firm who integrates and mange companys logistics resources and providers, including 3PLs and transportation companies. A 4PLs dont own the assets use in the logistics process unlike 3PLs. The heart of the fourth-party logistics concept is the presence of that integrator and the sense of strategy involved. It is a Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) provider. A 4PL brings different perspectives and value which includes knowledge, experience and technology existing in the operational systems of the customers, and can and will work with the firm to reengineer it into an improved or new process. A 4PL is neutral and offers managerial responsibilities for the logistics process, regardless of what carriers, forwarders, or warehouses are owned or used by the primary company. The 4PL will even manage existing 3PLs either one or more, already been used by the customer. Historical relationship with the customer and existing 3PL means a better understanding of the complexity of the customers requirements, this allows for a viable solutions and to have customer satisfaction and retention policies. Some 3PLs companies also upgrade their expertise to render consultancy services like a 4PL. Some 3PLs have a 4PL division. Advantages of outsourcing a transport operation to a fourth part Logistics operator A good 4PL company should have a state-of-the-art technology that ensures their customers high demands are met. It should be able to render solutions that can be customized to each clients requirement, and also be able to deliver maximised availability of the right product at minimum inventory holding cost. These are the advantages/benefits of an efficient collaborative 4PL approach to logistics solutions: Debt and Unique Expertise: when logistics process becomes complex, increasingly expensive and non core competency to shed. The verse availability of resources at 4PL disposal makes it have capabilities to identify the most effective ideas and do further analysis on them to see how effective they are to their customers. 4PLs have more recourses and contacts (3PLs, IT vendors and transport companies) available for their customers to choose from. It retains cooperate supply chain network in the companys data. 4PLs addresses operational failures of existing 3PL companies by creating completely new structure for their customers. 4PLs carries out a single point of contact to mange all areas of their customers supply chain network to check for failures from existing or previous 3PLs. Normalize data: due to difference in reporting formats and different metrics from multiple relationships, 4PL is able to align these different data (normalize data) and makes it easy and quickly to compare data across the supply chain and across the company. For instance 4PLs knits together different 3PLs into a total, integrated solution. 4PLs deploy assets as efficiently as possible by considering both inbound and outbound sectors of supply chain logistics to leverage synergisms. Analytic capability: 4PLs does this by managing supply chain on a more concentration on data intensive basis. For instance, the curiosity of whether deliveries reached their final destination safely and on time is further analysed to also determine whether distribution stations have the right inventory and right levels of inventory. Optimisation of supply chain: this the ability of the 4PL to get a great rate on transport cost from one point to the other. 4PL do more comprehensive research in the process of goods being moved from one point to the other, paving way for an environment in which encourages the supply chain to become a competitive advantage. 4PLs are in a better position to develop meaningful metrics in a common format making use of terms and conditions that are standardized across the company and its supply chain. The ability of 4PLs to deliver raw materials and finished goods at the right place and right time, gives their customers a competitive advantage. Customers working with a top 4PL have the advantage of getting exposed to best practices and encourages innovation through the supply chain. 4PLS work with variety of companies both home and abroad, so they have a wide contacts and knowledge. 4PLs are welled positioned to see different approaches to problems and issues, in the process they assimilate the most effective approaches into their practices that could later be used on their customers. Sharing and Reducing Risks: the relationship between 4PLs and its customers brings about the sharing and reduction of risks. The 4PL company transfers, avoids, and also eliminates risks because they are specialized providers of logistic solutions. They are able to have first hand experience to assess uncertainties and potential catastrophes affecting logistics operations. The 4PL also have sophisticated and sufficient equipment and facilities to run logistics and supply chain process efficiently. The 4PL dont want to fail, in doing so they share risk with their customers. Improves Accountability: most companies find it hard to track money spent on transport activities, they cant come up with a presentation that states the consolidated report of detail spending or the reasons for it. 4PLs drive efficiency: by improving not just on transportation efficiency, but also on packaging engineering and products engineering. It makes use of its collaborative environment to pull together both packaging engineers and production engineers to optimize the sectors that has direct or indirect effect on the supply chain. For instance, freight forwarders deal with chartered weights and actual weights, so the main aim is to minimize the difference between charted and actual weights and in the process get better unit prices. Changing the structure of the network: this a usual approach taken by 4PLs, by implementing changes to optimize the supply chain, changes/ additional warehouses and distribution centre location, staging and inter or multi modal transportation. These are a one time savings, but are necessary for effective performance. It is very essential to look at transportation modes; fluctuation in factors affecting transport modes like economics, disaster, and pollution e.t.c. for instance, fluctuation in economics may cause some changes to modes of shipment. The decision on what combination of transport modes is necessary to get a better logistics solution. 4PLs provides its customers Improved availability of raw materials, increased customer satisfaction rating, and increased sales and profit by exposing its customers to its additional clients and other divisions. Effective consultancy and solutions provided by 4PLs leads to reductions in lead-times in exportation from export country to import country and vice versa. Improved load planning through consolidation options delivering optimised container fills 4PLs creates the opportunity of greater collaboration and improved relationships with multiple partners which shows no one knows it all. No company is perfect in every area and location of operations. A 4PL over sees all financial activities of 3PLs, in case of financial failure 4PLs releases capital through proper selling of logistics assets to the 4PL organisation or on levelled headed free market. Disadvantages of outsourcing a transport operation to a fourth part Logistics operator Although 4PLs have lots of benefits and logistic solutions to their customers, there are also some negative aspects of a Fourth Party logistics to the customers and the company. Some of these disadvantages are listed below: Lost of Control over the Supply Chain: as a company outsource its supply chain to a 4PL a bit of the companys control is lost. The company takes the risk of depending on the fourth party logistics provider and losses the control over the logistics and service process when the logistics operations are subcontracted to logistic providers like 4PLs. if the logistic operations goes like an error or mistake, the company will be affected directly but is unable to fix the problem itself due to the fact that such activities have been outsourced to a 4PL. Cost Awareness: out

Monday, January 20, 2020

Against Schools Essay -- Analysis, John Gatto

In John Gatto’s essay â€Å"Against Schools† he states from experience as a school teacher that are current educational system is at fault (148). He claims that classrooms are often filled with boredom manufactured by repetitive class work and unenthusiastic teachings. Students are not actively engaged and challenged by their work and more often than not they have either already covered the concepts taught in class or they just do not understand what is being taught to them. The children contained in classrooms have come to believe that their teachers are not all that knowledgeable about the subjects that they are teaching and this advances their apathy towards education. The teachers also feel disadvantaged while fulfilling their roles as teachers because the students often bring rude and careless attitudes to class. Teachers often wish to change the curriculums that are set for students in order to create a more effective lesson plan, but they are restricted by stric t regulations and consequences that bind them to their compulsory teachings (148-149). An active illustration of John Gatto’s perspective on our educational system can be found in Mike Rose’s essay â€Å"I Just Wanna Be Average† (157). Throughout this piece of literature the author Mike Rose describes the kind of education he received while undergoing teachings in the vocational track. During Mike’s vocational experiences he was taught by teachers that were inexperienced and poorly trained in the subjects they taught. As a result, their lesson plan and the assignments they prepared for class were not designed to proficiently teach students anything practical. For example, the curriculum of Mike Rose’s English class for the entire semester consisted of the repeated reading of ... ...o think for themselves. He believes that students will become more active and informed citizens if they are brought up to think for themselves (155). Gatto’s proposed solutions can be found successfully applied in Mike Rose’s essay. In his essay he describes the mediocre education he received while on the vocational track. Mike’s future was looking rather grim until he came under the instruction of Jack MacFarland. This man was a wise and enthusiastic teacher who challenged students academically. He encouraged and inspired students to read, to be proactive in their classes, and to think for themselves. His classes were engaging and the students were interested in his teachings (165-167). The fact that the same solutions that Gatto proposed in his essay was successful applied elsewhere proves that teaching practices need and can to change for the better.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

My Younger Sister

My younger sister, Kate. Being a lively, witty and smart eleven-year-old, my sister, Kate, is a typical example of a girl who experiences changes from the stage of childhood into a teenager. She demonstrates how quickly girls these days enter the period of adolescence. At this stage she is a somewhat tall girl, with long legs, which makes an impression of a person who is already at least sixteen. When I sometimes see her playing basketball in the school playing grounds, I always find it difficult to discern her from among the boys.This will-be teenager has short brown-black hair and blushed cheeks which actually look like blooming roses. Her snub nose suggests indirectly that she is a slightly conceited person. My sister is quite slight and slender. This feature again implies how girls usually want to look at this age. Having a very lively approach to life, Kate is a very sociable kind of human being, She seems to be always willing to talk and ask a number of difficult questions.A lo t of friends revolve around her, the suspicion being that it is mainly owing to her energy. She is a witty character. I cannot help wondering where she gets those funny responses. It makes her a very funny person indeed. As it usually happens, however, she also possesses the bad qualities of the character. My sister tends to be a lazy-bone despite her being fairly energetic. She, too, is inclined to answer back either to me or to my parents.Nevertheless, many of her physical qualities appear to compensate for her weaknesses. She has got good memory and a good ear. These advantages help her considerably in learning. Consequently, she remembers a lot at school, which she doesn’t have to revise at home. I harbour positive feelings towards Kate in spite of her imperfections. Obviously, she is my sister. I admire the way she talks to me and how enthusiastically she practices sport.

Friday, January 3, 2020

An Old Colleague Of Mines Essay - 1932 Words

Introduction For my case study, I decided to choose an old colleague of mines named Rita Oduguwa. Rita was born and raised in Lagos, Nigeria. Rita moved to the United States 38 years ago, in 1978 with her husband. She fluently speaks Yoruba, English, and occasionally uses French. She began acquiring English in the third grade, at a private school in Nigeria. Both of her parents spoke Yoruba, but only her dad spoke English for his job. She began school in Kindergarten where her teachers taught her in Yoruba. On her first day of third grade she was totally confused because her teachers only spoke to the class in English and French. She learned that day she would no longer be allowed to speak in Yoruba at school. Rita found this very challenging, but she had no other option. If she did not learn English and French she would not be able to communicate with others and her teachers would take her lunch as punishment. There were no supplemental aids or translations of Yoruba to English/French. To help her and her siblings with school Rita’s dad hired them private tutors. The tutors would come and set up all over the house and Rita and her siblings would rotate around the house to the different tutors for two hours a day. Rita became trilingual at an early age. After getting married Rita’s husband John decided to get a new start by moving to the United States. They settled in a little city named Rowlett, that is north of Dallas in Texas. Rita thought that because she knew EnglishShow MoreRelatedThe Six Assumptions of Adult Learning Essay1342 Words   |  6 Pagesexperienced this day two years in a row, on my third year of â€Å"District Meetings† day, I did not expect anything to be different than the prior years. I arrived at the assigned school, signed into to my school at the sign in table, eyed the room for my colleagues/friends, found my seat, and prepared myself for the day to come. 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