Saturday, August 31, 2019

In Focus: On Kurds and Their Struggles for Independence

Kurds are a non-Arabic ethnic group adhering to the teachings of Sunni Muslim faith. This group is said to be compassionate, romantic and fatalistic as it is evidently shown with their literature. Kurds are politically and ideologically diverse (Yildiz and Blass, 2004). They fought several struggles to claim their independence, but still, their struggles seem unending. At present, they are still establishing their own independent states in Syria, Iran, and Iraq. Brief History About the Kurds McKiernan (2006) stated that Kurds are Indo-European people residing in the mountains and highlands of Kurdistan ( area where Turkey, Iran and Iraq meet). They do have their own native language that is much like of the Persian language. Also, Kurds adhere to the belief of Sunni Muslim faith, but there are some who embrace other religions such as Jews, Yazidis, Christianity and other sects. Their way of living is nomadic. Herding sheep and goat is their main source of living. Until the middle of 19th century, Kurds were never at peace due to the disagreement of the Ottoman and Persian Empire about border areas. The result: Kurds are mistrusted by both empires. The group was pressured to give up their old ways, to conform to the majority. They are forced to learn the language of the nation. Upon learning such language, they were to give up Kurdish identity and to accept the nationalism of the borders where they are residing. The group was divided; but most of them tried to resist the changes particularly those concerning their identity (Saleem, 2006). Kurds and Their Struggles As early as 19th century, Kurdistand, a territory for the Kurds had been promised but it was never kept until this day. Throughout the years, as new state systems have been imposed targeting centralization, homogenization, and control, the Kurds hav been made homeless. In addition, new state systems have their own political ideologies where the demands of the minorities are last among its priorities (McDowall, 2004). After the conflicts and struggles, there was peace among the Kurds that lasted for twenty years. But during the peaceful period, Kurds were maltreated; specifically they did not have rights that ensured their safety and protection. Due to such treatment, Kurds opted to continue their struggle for independence and nationhood (Mckiernan, 2006). Yildiz and Blass (2004) reported that Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria are the concerns since Kurds area presently residing in those countries. The government of the mentioned countries have implemented several strategies on whether to accept or deny the political, social, and security demands of the Kurds. And often, the strategies deny the legitimacy of the Kurds in the country concerned.   The demands and rights are taken away from the group, peaceful talks regarding the concepts of Kurdistan were never given. In Turkey, there are bout 10 million Kurds forbidden to speak their native language, instead they are forced to learn and speak the Turkish language; if caught speaking the Kurdish language, they will be imprisoned. Also, they must not call themselves as â€Å"Kurds†, instead they must label themselves as â€Å"Mountain Terks†. The Kurds in Turkey cannot withstand the discrimination, they rebelled against the Turkish government but instead of winning their plea; the government suppressed the rebellion by deporting thousands of Turks from the country (Gunter, 1997). It was in 1920 when the Iranians ruled over the Kurds. The Iranian domination over the Kurds stopped in 1946, when the Kurds of Mahabad were successful in claiming their independent republic. The Kurds were able to win their rights, registering their tribal lands as their own possession. They were also given a seat in the ruling elite, ensuring that their demands and rights are protected as well. After the Shia revolution, their demands and rights were once more deprived of them (McDowall, 2004). It was in Iraq, where there are several revolts held by the Kurds to uphold their rights and privileges as a nation, as an inhabitant of Iraq. The revolt started in 1964 which was led by Mullah Mustafa Barzani, the famous leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq (KDP). In 1975, the rights and privileges fought for had been heard later on to find out that their leader had abandoned the Kurds in exchange for self-interest. Brutal attacks had been done to Kurdish civilians (Yildiz and Blass, 2004). The demands of the Kurds are seen as challenges for the country’s ruling body. The group is regarded as a hindrance for government systems to be implemented smoothly. Often, Kurdish political demands such as shared power and resources among different political groups, multi-ethnic and multi-religious, are viewed as threats for the country’s security and sovereignty.   Despite the long years of struggles that are continuing up to the present, Kurds remain to be political inhabitants of the country (Mckiernan, 2006). The Kurdish people up to present are still continuing their battle against oppression and colonization among Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. They are continuously fighting to uphold their identity, rights and to rule over their own individuality. Despite the efforts given, the conflicts among Kurds must first be resolved. The tribal social structure of each group residing in Kurdistan areas, their beliefs and particularly the political ideologies they are adhering to. The differences among them must first be resolved in order to achieve good outputs.   And for the past years of struggle, many Kurds have given up their lives to achieve the political ideologies that they have been fighting for. Kurds experienced devastating tragedies killing fellow Kurds believing in their rights a group, as an individual, and as an ethnic Kurd member (Saleem, 2006). Conclusion Despite the years that have passed, the struggles seem endless for the Kurds. There are several reasons contributing to the failure of their long struggle. Internal disputes among them seem trivial but have effectively impeded their way to success. The countries still hold to their tactics in eventually eliminating their rights and privileges, while Kurds adhere to their political beliefs and upholding their rights. Unless a quorum is reached, this issue is unlikely to be resolved . Compromise among the countries and the Kurds must be made possible. Peaceful dialogue among the groups should be initiated as early as now. Once more, we should not allow devastating killings to occur and peace initiatives at the national and international levels must be strengthened in order to have a conducive atmosphere for peaceful dialogue. As for the Kurds, who suffered pain throughout their years of battle, they must conform to these peace initiatives being set. The peaceful coexistence of both peoples is achievable. For this proposal to occur, there must be bilateral ceasefire and negotiations among the involved parties. The future of the group is within their hands. The internal conflicts among them must first be resolved in order to achieve unity. The differences and the question of supremacy must be set aside in order to negotiate the rights and privileges that they are all fighting for. The governments will see that the rights and privileges are not demands that would impede the country’s system. Respect is the key for the successful deployment of peace negotiations. One must learn to respect one’s individuality. The political beliefs that both parties have, are working well for their respective inhabitants, and the process should be allowed to maintain this status quo. Kurds may preserve their individuality and be able to utilize the culture handed on to them in such a set-up.   Language and education would be their most powerful tools that will allow them to churn out meaningful literary output (written in their native tongue), showcasing to the world their cultural heritage and its uniqueness. References Gunter, M. (1997).   The Kurds and the Future of the Turkey. St. Martin’s Press, NY. USA 56-70. McDowall, D. (2004). A Modern History of the Kurds. 3rd edn. St. Martin’s Press, NY.USA. 423-456. McKiernan, K. (2006). The Kurds: A People in Search of their Homeland.   St. Martin’s Press, NY.USA. Saleem, H. (2006).   My Father’s Rifle: A Childhood in Kurdistan. Picador. 47-87. Yildiz, K. and Blass, T. (2004). The Kurds in Iraq: The Past, Present, and Future. Pluto Press.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Changing Trend in Counselling Psychology: Internet Counselling as a Psychotherapy Practice

Introduction The emergence of counselling psychology as a distinct profession in the United Kingdom two decades ago was a significant pointer that the field’s practitioners, represented by the British Psychological Society, had finally recognised that the field is unique in terms of identity and practicing philosophy. This recognition is captured in the definition by the Society that counselling psychology is a value based approach to counselling as a profession, and puts emphasis on the counselling primacy or relationship-oriented approach based on therapeutic observation (Milton, 2010). However, amidst the recognition are challenges, both present and potential, affects and will continue to challenge the effectiveness of counselling psychology as a noble profession. The challenges, as a matter of fact, are based on the modes of delivery of delivery of counselling psychology. Presently, scholars and practitioners have identified issues, such as technological revolution challenges, ethical dilemmas in relation to health maintenance organisations, psychologists facing certain challenges including prescription delivery services, and challenges with empirical research based support system among many other issues. Although these issues are no doubt a big concern currently, the biggest debate has revolved around the role of technology in counselling psychology, considering that the literature about this area is hard to come by. The growing dilemmas are based on the impact of technology on the growth of counselling psychology and, at the same time, the challenges that come with its increased use, given the nature of counselling psychology services modes (Gackenbach, 2011). Internet Counselling Technology has become part of almost every household, and is predicted to continue having tremendous impact on the lives of families and households, particularly in the spheres of economic, socio-political and cultural aspects. In fact, internet technology has not only affected how families and households buy or sell things online through ecommerce trading platforms, but has also had a tremendous impact on physical and mental health of many people around the world. Health professional practitioners have, therefore, incorporated internet into one of their modes of transferring services to the care receivers or clients. In turn, the general public, including those in need of counselling services, can access these services from home within minutes, and cost effectively. However, the inherent challenges when delivering counselling services via internet cannot be assumed, and has attracted unending debate not only on its viability but also its effectiveness as compared to the traditional in-person mode of counselling (Reamer, 2013). The question would therefore be on whether advantages of internet counselling supersede its disadvantages. The British Psychological Society established a â€Å"Division of Counselling Psychology: Professional Practice Guidelines† in 2006 (Reamer, 2013), which emphasised the need to have a balanced approach to counselling psychology service delivery methods. For instance, they state that the practitioners should not assume any form of automatic superiority over any one in terms of experience, feeling, value, and know-how. They also state that any practitioners should be ready to challenge the views of persons who pathologise on the basis of â€Å"sexual orientation, disability, class origin, or racial identity and religious and spiritual views† among other critical aspects of the society (British Psychological Practice, 2006, cited in Reamer, 2013, p.169). The concept of not assuming one-way knowledge in counselling psychology has led to a number of challenges, particularly with the increasingly growing technology-laden population, including those in need of counselling and psychological support. In certain cases, the client may not have the adequate mental capacity to interpret certain information, thus leading to miscommunication. In other words, the client may wrongly interpret a message as critical or not friendly, thus end up feeling hurt or injured. After all, online interaction sessions do provide neither counselling psychologist nor client with shared environment. Internet psychotherapy sessions may suffer from miscommunication between the psychotherapist and client. In any case, studies have shown that miscommunication may inadvertently harm the client and possibly increase trauma after the disclosure of important facts about them (Gackenbach, 2011). For example, text or email based communication is prone to miscommunication since the more important non-verbal cues are missing. Moreover, most counselling psychologists are mainly trained on in-person techniques. The counselling psychologist may, thus, lack the writing skills necessary to adequately express meanings in written words. (Patrick, 2006) As technology pushes people o the brink of being an entirely online society, the viability of internet counselling will remain a thorny issue as it is apparent that certain aspects of counselling psychology could be more difficult to deal with than others. Most professional organisations unanimously recommend that counselling therapists practicing online counselling sessions should continue using the basic ethical standards applied in the in-person psychotherapy sessions (Luepker, 2012). Some of the recommendations are based on the need to adhere to the informed consent used in in-person counselling, including informing the clients about risks, benefits, available safeguards, limitations, and exceptions to confidentiality and privacy, identity verification, limiting practice to the scope of one’s qualification, accurately representing themselves and their licensure status, finding solutions to the potential harm that may arise from dual roles, and establishing emergency respon se for clients in different geographical locations (Gackenbach, 2011). However, the question that has never been answered is how to deal with clients coming from different jurisdiction locations with varied laws and legal procedures. In addition, a therapist may find it extremely difficult to handle a case where a client threatens to commit suicide. Informed consent, Disclosure and Confidentiality The introduction of diverse digital versions in the counselling psychology practice has brought with it diverse problems related to informed consent, disclosure and confidentiality. However, like any other internet usage, the concept of informed consent, disclosure and confidentiality still lingers as serious sources of dilemma. The lack of physical presence may make it difficult to verify identity, thus may lead to psychotherapist treating a minor without parental knowledge, and this consent (Gackenbach, 2011). When such occurrence become rampant, there is likely to be more actions from policy makers to protect the majority from the possible breach of informed consent in the context of internet counselling. Within the context of informed consent is the issue of confidentiality, a critical aspect of counselling psychology. Studies have shown that internet is not a secure platform to assure the preservation of confidentiality (Barak, 2008). Although psychotherapists are advised to inform the clients of the potential dangers and risks associated with modes of service delivery, including breach of confidentiality and experimental nature of the process, this kind of advice still leaves gaps in better ways in which confidentiality can be maintained, a concern that is unlikely to end any time soon. Accuracy in assessment and monitoring effectiveness of interventions One of the first steps in the counselling process is to assess and monitor the client (Milton, 2010) However, with barriers in the virtual world, it is may be difficult to accurately assess and monitor the patients during service delivery sessions. It is important to note that virtual interaction means lost contact, which is an integral part of achieving the goals of counselling psychology as outlined by the British Psychological Society. Moreover, one of the perspectives that were present during the formative periods of counselling psychology is the need for psychologist to understand people as relational beings. In the process of fostering collaborations with people as well as contexts that draw on a range of perspectives, including the traditional views of people as independent entities, counselling psychology has always recognised that relational perspectives have significant contribution to make on not only understanding people but also help the clients work towards bettering their wellbeing (Patrick, 2006). However, this relationship is lost through lack of physical interaction between the psychologist and the client. Moreover, the psychologist’s inability to focus on other family members and intimate partners obviously jeopardises any chance of learning the relationship between the clients and their significant others. As Barnett (2005) states, failure to understand the relationship between clients and people close to them may make it difficult to assess the former’s self-esteem, likes, cultural upbringing and socio-political background. The controversy that is likely to extend over a long period of time is the criteria in which internet psychotherapy sessions can be evaluated. While the traditional in-person counselling therapy has elaborate theoretical frameworksand models that support its use, internet counselling psychotherapy does not have any historical frameworks and models that guide its use. Although most psychotherapists have solely relied on relational counselling, they still run short because of the inability to establish therapeutic relationships with clients. At present, the main concern is how the traditional models can be interpreted into online models. Barak et al (2008) observed that internet-based interventions in the field of counselling psychology have been used for over a decade. However, no clear analysis of its effectiveness has been forthcoming. They, however, recommend adoption of online counselling as a legitimate option in offering psychotherapeutic counselling sessions. Still, they warn t hat the psychotherapists must be willing to use online counselling with strong ethical issues in mind. Ethical challenges The other challenge is the ethical issues that emerge from counselling psychology practice. In the field of practice of counselling psychology, one of the potential current issues is how to enforce ethical code of conducts, including ensuring psychologists only practice within their areas of competence based on qualifications in terms of training as well as experience (Patrick, 2006). In addition, the psychologists are expected to take reasonable steps in ensuring their work follow necessary procedures that protect clients from any possible harm. However, this challenge still poses serious challenges to the regulatory authorities as it is difficult to weed out unqualified persons from assuming counselling responsibilities at the detriment of the clients. In essence, professional accountability is still considered far from being managed. Furthermore, laws governing counselling psychology practices may be different from one geographical jurisdiction to another, with questions as to how the two persons; client and psychologist, can operate (Luepker, 2012). It has been observed that many practicing counselling psychologists have attempted to navigate through the legal and professional barriers in internet counselling by defining their online counselling services as psycho-education (Patrick, 2006). Although some online counselling may be legitimately offering purely therapeutic education services, some therapists cross the boundary and treat clients within multiple sessions, which clearly suggest therapeutic counselling sessions rather than claimed educational. This is a serious ethical breach that, although may be tamed by stricter regulatory laws and policies, may be difficult to interpret for appropriate actions to be taken. Conclusion Despite the advancement in technology and the desire to build long-standing strategies to effectively deliver appropriate services to clients in the field of counselling psychology, there are inherent challenges that remain controversial to date. Confronting the complexity of electronic media to deliver counselling sessions in the most professional manner has is one area that remains a challenge, and is expected to continue dominating this comparatively new profession. Moreover, virtual interactions are limited in the sense that the psychotherapist and the client are not connected beyond internet, hence are not able to experience the common advantages that come with physical interactions, such as nonverbal cue interpretations. Issues that have arisen, and will continue to generate debate in the foreseeable future are: miscommunication, inability to stick to professional code of ethics by some counselling psychologists, inability to assess and measure the success of online counselling sessions, and difficulty in keeping internet communications secure. In fact, these issues have been discussed and continue to dominate the profession’s sphere of influence. It may be important to state that counselling psychologists may need to participate in developing thoughtful policies and procedures related to technology use in the field of counselling psychology by involving clients in the process. Lastly, it must be important to state that whenever technological intervention affects therapeutic relationship, either positively or negatively, the impact becomes part of the profession, hence must remain in the record. References Barak , A., Hen, L., Boniel-Nissim, M. and Shapira, N. (2008). A comprehensive review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26 (2-4): 109-160. Barnett, J.E. (2005). Online Counseling: New Entity, New Challenges. The Counseling Psychologist, 33 (6): 872-880. Gackenbach, J. (2011). Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal Implications. Waltham, Massachusetts: Academic Press. Luepker, E.T. (2012). Record Keeping in Psychotherapy and Counseling. Protecting Confidentiality and the Professional Relationships. London: Routledge. Milton, M. (2010). Therapy and Beyond: Counseling Psychology Contributions to Therapeutic and Social Issues. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Patrick, P. K. S. (2006). Internet counseling: Trends, applications, and ethical issues. In P. K. S. Patrick (Ed.). Contemporary Issues In Counseling. Manuscript submitted for publication (Allyn and Bacon). Reamer, F.G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2): 163-172.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Possible Topics for The Crucible Essay

1. Which character in the play best exemplifies courage and integrity, and in what ways? 2. The causes of the witch-craft hysterias include many things: vengeance, jealousy, greed, power (the formerly powerless accusers suddenly gained total power), sexual repression, guilt and shame and the need to confess one’s sins, the need to blame others for one’s own misfortunes †¦ pick a character who sees and recognizes all these true motives and argue that of all the play’s characters, this character demonstrates the most insight into the root causes of the hysteria and also into human nature. Consider: Proctor, Hale, Rebecca Nurse. 3. A more highly evolved thinker is someone who can, in part, transcend dichotomies (or, Dualism, a simple way of dividing the world into paired opposites, such as black-white, night-day, good-evil). Which character, of all of the characters in the play, comes closest to being able to see beyond simplistic, Dualistic thinking? Consider: Proctor, Elizabeth, Martha and Giles Corey, Reverend Hale. 4. Argue that if the vast majority of Puritans in Salem had not had a Dualistic way of viewing the world—that is, they all transcended dichotomous ways of thinking—that the witchcraft trials would never have happened. Do this by showing how central their Dualistic way of viewing the world was to the witch-hunts and trials. 5. Redemption is a common theme of a lot of religious, particularly Christian, stories and Christian-influenced cultures. Which characters in the play seek redemption, and how do they go about it? Who actually finds it? (Redemption is when someone has done something bad, and atones for, or makes up for, the bad stuff to ‘redeem’ their soul, or character, to make themselves—if not pure—at least, better than they were, to ‘balance the scales’ again). Bear in mind that confession is a huge part of the process of redemption for many Christians, but that the Puritans did not have confessionals in their churches, as is common among Catholics. Consider: Proctor, Hale, Elizabeth. 6. Who among all the characters best fits with the definition of a ‘person of tomorrow’? Twelve characteristics of ‘The Person of Tomorrow’ (according to Carl Rogers, cited in An Introduction to Theories of Personality, Fourth Edition, by B.R. Hergenhahn) 1. An openness to both inner and outer experience. 2. A rejection of hypocrisy, deceit, and double talk. In other words, a desire for authenticity. 3. A skepticism toward the kind of science and technology that has as its goal the conquest of nature or the control of people. 4. A desire for wholeness. For example, equal recognition and expression of the intellect and the emotions. 5. A wish for shared purpose in life or intimacy. 6. A tendency to embrace change and risk-taking with enthusiasm. 7. A gentle, subtle, non-moralistic, nonjudgmental caring. 8. A feeling of closeness to, and a caring for, nature. 9. Antipathy for any highly structured, inflexible, bureaucratic institution. They believe that institutions should exist for the people, not the other way around. 10. A tendency to follow the authority of their own organismic valuing process. 11. An indifference toward material comfort and rewards. 12. A desire to seek a meaning in life greater than the individual—spiritual yearning. 7. Pick a character whose choices throughout the play show how he or she morally changed, and explain how that character’s social and moral choices helped him or her to grow and change. Your Essay’s Basic Outline: I. Introduction. 1. Write your thesis here, and include this phrase: â€Å"In Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible†: 2. Now write (in brief) what the three main points that support your thesis are (do not write your actual topic sentences, but just mention what those sentences will be about). Do that here: II. First Body Paragraph 1. Here, write your actual topic sentence: 2. (skip item 2 and do item 3 first and then come back to this later) Write your set-up (context) for the quotation: 3. Write the page number and the quotation you will use here: 4. Now go back and write the set-up for the quotation (item 2). Then come back to this item and write the sentence explaining why that quotation is significant, how it proves your topic sentence and thesis. Do that here: 5. Now write the sentence where you say how the quotation proved the topic sentence that supports your overall thesis. Do that here: III. Second Body Paragraph 1. Here, write your actual topic sentence: 2. (skip item 2 and do item 3 first and then come back to this later) Write your set-up (context) for the quotation: 3. Write the page number and the quotation you will use here: 4. Now go back and write the set-up for the quotation (item 2). Then come back to this item and write the sentence explaining why that quotation is significant, how it proves your topic sentence and thesis. Do that here: 5. Now write the sentence where you say how the quotation proved the topic sentence that supports your overall thesis. Do that here: IV. Third Body Paragraph 1. Here, write your actual topic sentence: 2. (skip item 2 and do item 3 first and then come back to this later) Write your set-up (context) for the quotation: 3. Write the page number and the quotation you will use here: 4. Now go back and write the set-up for the quotation (item 2). Then come back to this item and write the sentence explaining why that quotation is significant, how it proves your topic sentence and thesis. Do that here: 5. Now write the sentence where you say how the quotation proved the topic sentence that supports your overall thesis. Do that here: V. Conclusion 1. Now re-write your thesis statement from your introduction here that communicates the same idea but using different words. 2. Re-list the three examples you gave in your introduction, in the order in which you addressed them in your body paragraphs (list the example from your first body paragraph first, then the example from your second body paragraph second, and the example from your third body paragraph last). Exemplar Outline for The Crucible I. Introduction. Thesis: â€Å"In Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible, social inequalities led to struggles for power in the time of the Salem witch-hunts, with tragic (fatal) results.† Examples: social class, gender and age (Abby and the girls), race (Tituba), social class (Goody Osburn). II. Body Paragraph. Topic Sentence: â€Å"In Salem of the 1690’s, all children—especially girls—were essentially powerless, even more so if they were poor; these inequalities led directly to Abigail and the other girls’ ruthlessly exploiting the only opportunity they had to gain power in their society: through accusations of witchcraft.† Alternative: â€Å"Those who had been denied power in Salem—poor servant girls—got a taste of it by accusing others of witchcraft, and, power-drunk, became addicted to it: their society gave them no power at all, at first, then gave them absolute power which corrupted them absolutely.† Examples: From Miller’s description of Parris, â€Å"Until this strange crisis he, like the rest of Salem, never conceived that the children were anything but thankful for being permitted to walk straight, eyes slightly lowered, arms at the sides, and mouths shut until bidden to speak† (3). The way Proctor treats Mary Warren; Proctor says to Mary Warren, â€Å"Be you foolish, Mary Warren? Be you deaf? I forbid you leave the house, did I not?† Mary Warren says, â€Å"I only come to see the great doings in the world.† Proctor says, â€Å"I’ll show you a great doin’ on your arse one of these days. Now get you home; my wife is waitin’ with your work!† (20). When Proctor goes to whip her, Mary Warren says, â€Å"I saved her [Elizabeth’s] life today!† (56). Her newfound power is shown when she says, â€Å"I am bound by law, I cannot tell it. I only hope you’ll not be so sarcastical no more. Four judges and the King’s deputy sat to dinner with us but an hour ago. I—I would have you speak civilly to me† (57)†¦. and when she says â€Å"I’ll not be ordered to bed no more, Mr. Proctor! I am eighteen and a woman, however single!† (57). The new-found power of the accusers, now at the center of attention: Proctor says, â€Å"Is the accuser always holy now? Were they born this morning as clean as God’s fingers? †¦ We are what we always were in Salem, but now the little crazy children are jangling the keys of the kingdom, and common vengeance writes the law!† (73). Danforth says, â€Å"Do you know, Mr. Proctor, that the entire contention of the state in these trials is that the voice of Heaven is speaking through the children?† (82). Elizabeth says, â€Å"Abigail brings the other girls into the court, and where she walks the crowd will part like the sea for Israel. And folks are brought before them, and if they scr eam and howl and fall to the floor—the person’s clapped in the jail for bewitchin’ them† (50). III. Body Paragraph Topic Sentence w/ Elaboration: â€Å"Racism also played a role in forcing Tituba, an accused witch, to participate in the hysteria. As a black woman slave, she had to do what her master Reverend Parris commanded, and so in the guise of ‘confessing’ what he and other whites so clearly wanted to hear, she was also able to express her hatred of her oppressor by attributing it to the Devil, and also exercise some power over white people, things she otherwise could never have safely done.† Examples: â€Å"Tituba †¦ is also very frightened because her slave sense has warned her that, as always, trouble in this house eventually lands on her back† (8). Abigail says, â€Å"She made me do it! She made Betty do it!† (40). Abigail says, â€Å"She makes me drink blood!† (41). Tituba says, â€Å"You beg me to conjure! She beg me make charm—† (41). Parris says, â€Å"You will confess yourself or I will take you out and whip you to your death, Tituba!† (42). Putnam says, â€Å"This woman must be hanged! She must be taken and hanged!† (42). Putnam says, â€Å"Sarah Good? Did you ever see Sarah Good with him [the Devil]? Or Osburn?† (43). Hale says, â€Å"You have confessed yourself to witchcraft, and that speaks a wish to come to Heaven’s side. And we will bless you, Tituba† (43). Hale says, â€Å"You are God’s instrument put in our hands to discover the Devil’s agents among us. You are selected, Tituba, you are chosen to help us cleanse our village† (44). TITUBA. Oh, how many times he bid me kill you, Mr. Parris! †¦ He say Mr. Parris must be kill! Mr. Parris no goodly man, Mr. Parris mean man and no gentle man, and he bid me rise out of my bed and cut your throat! †¦ And then he come one stormy night to me, and he say, ‘Look! I have white people belong to me.’ And I look—and there was Goody Good †¦ Aye, sir, and Goody Osburn. (44) IV. Body Paragraph Topic Sentence w/ Elaboration: â€Å"Lastly, inequalities in social class played a huge role in the hysterias. Those who were middle class might be accused by those jealous of their rise in social stature, or because a wealthier person (like Putnam) could afford to buy the forfeited property of the ‘witch’ once s/he had hanged, but the easiest targets for false accusations of witchcraft were those who were very poor, like Goody Osburn. Salem’s poor became victims of false accusations because these victims, as social outcasts and undesirables (or, nuisances) would not be missed.† Examples: Mary Warren says, â€Å"Goody Osburn—will hang! †¦ When she come into the court I say to myself, I must not accuse this woman, for she sleep in ditches, and so very old and poor. But then—† [and describes how Goody Osburn sent her spirit out on her] (54). Mary Warren says, â€Å"So many time, Mr. Proctor, she come to this very door, beggin’ bread and a cup of cider—and mark this: whenever I turned her away empty, she mumbled† (55). V. Conclusion Restatement of thesis: â€Å"Inequalities in Salem in terms of age, gender, race, and social class made the witch-hunts possible. Those who had been denied any power in their society were suddenly able to become all-powerful through accusing others of witchcraft: often, they targeted those even less powerful than themselves.† Examples: Abby and the girls accuse Tituba, Tituba accuses a white woman of low social class (Goody Osburn), who Mary Warren (a servant girl) also accuses.

T-test and Correlation Statistics Project Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

T-test and Correlation - Statistics Project Example This paper will analyze difference in the percentage usage of prepositions in writing between native and non native speaker of English in their texts. For this, 10 texts written by a native speaker of English and another 10 texts written by a non-native speaker of English (Arab writer) in the usage (percentage) of prepositions were collected (table 1). The research hypothesis is â€Å"Is there a difference in the use of prepositions in writing between native and non native speaker of English?† The null and alternate hypotheses are H0: µnative =  µnon-native H1: µnative ≠   µnon-native The selected level of significance, ÃŽ ± is 0.05. The test selected is two-tailed t-test for independent samples (Independent Samples Test) because alternate hypothesis involves not equal to sign (≠ ). The average percentage use of prepositions in writing for non-native speaker of English in their text is 38.50 (SD = 6.35). The average percentage use of prepositions in writing for native speaker of English in their text is 38.30 (SD = 4.64). From figure 1, it appears that there is no difference in the use of prepositions in writing between native and non-native speaker of English. The Levene’s test for equality of variance is not significant, F(1, 18) = 1.90, p = .19 (>.05). Therefore, equal variance can be assumed for t-test. The null hypothesis H0 is retained. Therefore, there is no difference in the use of prepositions in writing between native and non native speaker of English, t(18) = 0.08, p = .94 (>.05). Both data set (data set 1 and data set 2) shows no correlation, r(8) = .06, p = .87 (>.05). In conclusion, data suggest that there is no difference in the usage of prepositions in writing between native and non native speaker of English.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Situational Analysis Report about Jetstar Airways Essay

Situational Analysis Report about Jetstar Airways - Essay Example It has continued to expand, opening new routes every now and then. Its dominance in Australia is apparent. Nonetheless, Jetstar Airways has on several instances been accused of discrimination against persons with disability and poor employee relations. However, Jetstar Airways is not immune to competition. It has faces stiff competition form other low-cost airlines such as Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways. This report therefore provides an extensive analysis of Jetstar Airlines with regards to its market situation, product situation, distribution situation and competitive situation. Also, using the SWOT analysis, the report gives a brief summary of Jetstar’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and finally an analysis of two main issues that the airline has created as a plan for market strategy. In this regards, the identified issues are: desire to expand and enhancing employee relations. Product overview Jetstar Airways specializes in providing a low-fares network o f airlines that operate in the leisure as well as value based markets. In Australia, Jetstar operates across 17 domestic destinations. Its mission is to provide all day, every day low fares to enable more people to fly more often ( Indeed, it is palpable that Jetstar Airways has been committed to its mission as it continues to offer the lowest air fares in Australia as compared to its major competitors. Due to its amazingly low-cost services, a Jetstar airway has been crowned a myriad of awards. For instance in 2009 and 2011, it was ranked the best low-cost airline in Australia by Skytrax. In 2007 and 2008, it was awarded the Low-cost Carrier of the Year (CAPA), among many others. It is credited for being the first Australian airline to allow its passengers an opportunity to select their seats when booking for a flight ( With specific reference to pricing, Jetstar offers exceptionally low prices for fights. The airline operates over fifty airbuses of various sizes, majority being Airbus A320. Currently for instance, the charges from Sydney to Brisbane is $ 79, Sydney to Cairns is $139, Sydney to Hobart is $ 99 whereas from Sydney to Adelaide is $ 100.Despite this amazingly low prices, Jetstar still affords incredible margins. For instance, as per the six month ended 31st, 2011, Jetstar Airways recorded an unaudited earnings of $1,565 Million in terms of total revenue and other incomes. This was an increased from the previous $1,346 million reported in the previous year ( With regards to competition, Jetstar Airline veneers s stiff competition from two major airlines in Australia. The most eminent competitor is Virgin Blue Airways which commands about 31 percent of the domestic flights in Australia. It operates 2,100 flights in a week with 68 modern aircrafts. Virgin Blues Airline provides very competitive prices. For instance, whereas Jetstar charges about $100, for a flight form Sydney to Adelaide, Virgin Blue charged $12 0 for the same flight. As a fact, Jetstar was established as a response to the threat posed by Virgin Blue. The other major competitor is Tiger Airways. Based in Singapore, Tiger Airways was launched in 2007 to provide low cost airlines as well. It tends to charge lower prices compared to Jetstar. For instance, the price of a flight form Sydney to Adelaide is $49, to Melbourne is $29 whereas to Gold Coast is $39. SWOT analysis At this juncture, it is important to

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Drug and Substance Abuse among Nursing Professionals Research Paper

Drug and Substance Abuse among Nursing Professionals - Research Paper Example The primary factor that influences high drug abuse recognition is the assumption that drug abusers are either economically depressed or ignorant about the dangers of drugs. Nurses and other health care professionals are taken by society as people who are financially well-up and able to manage stress and depression. The society seems to ignore the fact that no one is his or her own doctor. Even those who take care of the social and psychological needs of the society need social and psychological help. Contrary to the general societal misconception, the number of nurses abusing drugs and alcohol has increased over the years. Researchers have found a significant number of nurses who report the lack of moral support from the society as the major factor that influences them to take drugs. The society seems to be over-expectant on the role of nursing, forgetting that nurses are also human beings and can get depressed. At the same time, a nurse who is found taking drugs such as alcohol is seen as an irresponsible profession who needs to be fired for being a bad role model to the society. Nurses are expected to be morally upright all the time. The society does not expect them to take drugs and preach against them at the same time. Based on the misconception of the society towards nursing, many health care professionals are forced to take drugs while hiding. They develop the feeling that people will not trust their services if they see them taking alcohol, smoking, or taking any other type of drug that society deems immoral.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Project management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 1

Project management - Assignment Example I would define the scope of this project by aligning all the products of the project, their features and requirements that is the totality to the entire project work. This involves a proper structure and framework of the breakdown of the products or task involves in the projects along with the description of each task and steps involved in it (Fleming & Koppelman, 2000). In order to determine the scope of this project, I would first consider the objectives of the project, the goals of the project, the phases and sub phase involved in it, the tasks, resources, time, budget and scheduling of the project. The critical path of a project helps in planning, organizing and managing the entire project. It steps down each important step involved in the project. This listing helps in determining what need to be done before and what is required to be done later. The cost, time and resources required to perform these activities are attached in the critical path. If Penny Black would formulated the critical path she would have got a clear picture reflecting the entire journey of the project along with critical points. She would be able to get the idea which task needed to be done before and comes after the initial task. For instance if she would work on the size of the pumps and compressors earlier she would not end up with the wrong orders (Schwalbe, 2013). With the help of Gantt chart, Penny would be able to allocate the project activities in accordance with the time. The Gantt chart also helps her in keeping the track of project’s progress along with the running of costs. Gantt chart are flexible management tool, hence for any changes that occurred during the project she would be able to maintain a proper flow of the tasks and the progress. This tool is very beneficial for the planning process and once utilize properly it reduces the chance of errors (Pich et al., 2002). With that there are some specific techniques that

Sunday, August 25, 2019

An explaning why I am interested in becoming a nurse Essay

An explaning why I am interested in becoming a nurse - Essay Example Consequently nursing provides personal satisfaction by giving me an opportunity to make real differences in the lives of people everyday. Another important reason why I’m interested in nursing as a career is that nurses experience daily challenges some of which are interesting, unique and rewarding. In this regard, becoming a nurse will not only provide me with invaluable vast opportunities of life learning experiences. I also find personal satisfaction and growth in nursing as it provides me with knowledge and new experiences that help me to contribute more to the community. One of my goals for pursing nursing is to achieve Career mobility. Nursing will provide me with an opportunity to continue with my career in many directions because nursing offers the needed flexibility and individuals can choose to work with children, adults, schools and public health institutions among others (DeWit, 964). Currently there are virtually unlimited opportunities in nursing particularly for people who would like to continue learning new things in their fields of interest. With the rapidly improving healthcare technology and a constantly growing population, nurses are able to work in a variety of diverse working environments and settings such as in home cares, healthcare clinics and hospitals. My specific career goal however is to work as children doctor. Job security is another important consideration that made me to choose nursing. This is because there is a significant shortage of nurses nationwide and I will not need to worry about finding a fulfilling career option once I complete my studies. Nursing also offers the much needed scheduling flexibility to individuals who have other commitments to attend to. For example, as a nurse I will be able to combine a real career with the other personal or family demands by working in part time basis or shifts. On the other hand, I believe pursing nursing career will translate into competitive benefits and higher salaries in

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Software Development Methodology Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Software Development Methodology - Coursework Example These three approaches would be separately be implemented on the project in question and then a conclusion would be drawn from the comparison of all of these approaches which would lead to the methodology that is the most befitting to the project in question.The project is the development of an electronic library for a client by the company Top Quality Tech Solutions, which is modifiable. The library needs to have a database of electronic documents which the client can change, copy and return to the library. This is the model which is already in use by Top Quality Tech Solutions and has proved to be a successful model for the development of the two projects, thus it would be a natural progression if the model is again used for the current project. The model, if used in the development of the software library, would have positive results because this is the simplest kind of software development methodology out there; it runs on basic common sense and uses orthodox ways to develop the software which would be beneficial in developing the electronic library as it does not involve very complex programming or development. When this model is applied to the electronic library project, the requirements of the client would be seen, the design of the library and the additional options which the client wants in it are chalked out, a software for the library is developed and then verified and then periodic checks are done to see that the project is working as desired. This is the kind of development methodology which makes a prototype or an example project in the beginning so that an idea can be achieved as to how the model would look like when completed (Miles & Pilone, 2008). When applied to the electronic library project, this model could be beneficial because it would be able to show the customer what his project would look like in the long run. To start off, a prototype of the electronic library would be developed on which the rest of the project would be based. Since there are many small requirements of the clients like the viewing of the data from a central repository, consolidation of the data, the checking and checking out of the documents etc, all these requirements can be tested and the best solution out forward. Â  

Friday, August 23, 2019

Forklift Accident Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Forklift Accident - Article Example An accident occurred at the construction site of a light industrial building. A worker was driving a 3 ton forklift down a circular vehicle ramp from the fourth level towards the third level. There was no load on the forklift. The vehicle suddenly swerved and overturned on the third level and the worker who was driving the forklift was crushed beneath the vehicle and died on the spot. The driver had not undergone the mandatory forklift driver’s training course. Findings revealed that the forklift involved in the accident belonged to the main contractor and was poorly maintained. The driver was an employee of the plastering and bricklaying works contractor. The numbers of trained forklift operators were inadequate with respect to the number of forklifts. Also there was no risk assessment conducted on forklift operations.Another such accident occurred at a warehouse in a distribution park. A worker tallying stock stored on metal racks squeezed himself into the gap between two ra cks. A forklift driver was pushing racks closer together to make space for more racks. He did not see the employee, and the employee was crushed to death between the metal racks. If risk assessment had been carried out, forklifts and other workers would not have been allowed to operate in the area concurrently. It also seemed that there was inadequate safety training awareness among the employees.The key to preventing such accidents is training and enforcement of safety measures at places where forklifts are used.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Genetic Engineering Philosophical Paper Essay Example for Free

Genetic Engineering Philosophical Paper Essay Genetic Engineering Defined We live in a period of science breakthroughs and accomplishments.   For over centuries now, science has been constantly pursuing its ambition to hold nature’s natural course within its grasp.   Perhaps one field that can fit this description is genetic engineering which is a laboratory technique to change the DNA of living organisms (What is Genetic Engineering).   A good view of genetic engineering can perhaps be seen in the film Gattaca where one of the main characters, Vincent (played by Ethan Hawke), is not able to accept his genetic fate.    Basing on his character, the film views how genetic engineering can affect an individual’s self-esteem as well as how far it can push him to practice free will to fill this sense of emptiness. Effects of Genetic Engineering As to its effect on society, the movie shows how it serves as a solution in eliminating if not minimizing the consequences of genetic imperfection such as in-born diseases.   In fact, some also believe that genetic engineering can be beneficial not only with health and medicine but as well as food, agriculture, manufacturing, etc.   Even nowadays genetics have already made its benefits known by aiding in forensic investigations through DNA identification thus lessening the number of violent crimes (Genetic Engineering Benefits Society). However, there can also be possible risks when relying on this field of science particularly with eugenics, or the selection the future makeup of children which could lead to the elimination of some personal traits.   Another risk would be in the usage of biotechnology before exploring other options in terms of reproduction.   One example is implanting an egg from one woman into the uterus of another which might be hazardous if considered as a primary technique (Discovery Education: Genetic Engineering) Perhaps one of the things that the director of the movie Gattaca is trying to present is how genetic engineering can be a remedy or solution in altering human fate by making him somewhat more invincible.   After watching the film, I saw this field of science as something that can affect a person’s religious faith. This issue has been reinforced furthermore by the scene particularly during the birth of Vincent where he said, â€Å"He never understood what possessed his mother to put her faith in God’s hands rather than those of her local geneticists.† secondary to his rejection of the fact that he is too genetically imperfect to achieve his dreams.   As far as the film is concerned, this showed how genetic engineering can have the potential to tolerate such human behaviors which can ultimately lead him to play God once he gets the chance instead of practicing self-acceptance and humility. Ethical Implications of Genetic Engineering It has an ethical implication especially when it comes to religion.   Taking the views of the Church of Scotland for example, it states that although Christians have long regarded scientific research as a way of responding to God’s commands of â€Å"filling the earth and subduing it† from the first chapter of Genesis in the bible, it is but important to draw a line especially in the level of genetics as it is an alteration and manipulation of human genetics which is God’s exclusive rights only. Perhaps there would be exceptions such as issues that call for certain necessities like modifying pig hearts and lungs in case of serious shortage of suitable human donor organs.   However with or without the religious point of view, some practices of genetic manipulation can endanger the life of certain people if these are not properly controlled or monitored especially since we do not hold enough knowledge in harmfully interfering with nature.   Furthermore, this also distorts virtues like humility and creates erroneous perception of what people should be made up of physically in order to be happy (Are We Playing God?). The Swimming Scene   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This particular scene in the movie gives a certain twist in the view of genetic engineering.   Vincent was born with a 99% probability of heart disorder and so every time they do the swim race when they were kids, he often got tired first and lost to Anton.   But when they did it again when they were already grown ups, Anton lost the race and almost drowned.   When Vincent defeated Anton in the swimming race for the first time, this ultimately showed the strength of human spirit and how it can defeat even the genetically superior.   Apparently, it was as though Vincent was able to unconsciously imbibe self-confidence after all those times he spent with the genetically-engineered individuals. Uma Thurman’s Character   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Irene, Vincent’s love interest whom he met in Gattaca, is another perfect example of an individual who lacks self-confidence and spirit.   Compared to Vincent, her genes are almost perfect if not for a certain heart condition.   Perhaps it is due to the fact that Irene has also been a subject of comparison in Gattaca along with the pressures of being considered for a mission to Titan (one of the moons of the planet Saturn) that she is made to focus on her imperfection although in fact it is â€Å"smaller† as compared with her superior qualities.   If she were living in a community much normal than Gattaca, then there might be a greater chance for her to be happy and see her beautiful qualities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   With regards to Irene’s character, I think what the director is trying to show is that not even technology can answer for a person’s search for self-fulfillment.   Technology is also capable of deceiving people from seeing reality or from seeing what a person truly is.   Irene fell in love with Vincent in the film but little did she know that he is no more than a mere trespasser in the space agency if not for the help of his friend Jerome, a genetically superior individual who was paralyzed by a car accident and gave his identity to Vincent. The Ending   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The movie had an amazing ending.   After all the struggles and suspense, Vincent was surprisingly able to pull everything off and made it to the space mission, defeating the majority of his genetically-superior colleagues in Gattaca and taking Jerome’s identity with him.   Jerome on the other hand, committed suicide.   Jerome’s tragic end is the saddest part of the movie.   He has been completely consumed by his misfortune that he literally gave his life away.   He just could not accept what has become of him and the identity that he lost from the accident was the only person he knew how to be, a winner.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As to Jerome’s suicide, this brought up an ethical issue that perhaps society cannot approve.   Once again it goes against the views of religion about God’s prerogatives of the human life.   Jerome willing his own death cannot be considered a rightful one for even though he had broken a spine or is out of money, his brain was still functioning well, he was speaking very well, and most of all he did not even lose his good looks from the accident so there could have been a chance for him to charm his way to love. According to an article about ethical issues related to life and death, a person only can have a self-imposed death if he has a terminal illness and his physician proclaims certain death in the very near future wherein artificial bodily support is deemed useless considering the very short period of time left (Ethical Issues Related To Life And Death).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The final scene was both puzzling and funny.   There was the main character about to board the space mission and after successfully making it through several nerve-wracking genetic testing, his urine test finally revealed his true invalid identity.   Yet for some strange reasons, the one in charge of this final step let him through after a brief sentimental conversation about his son being a big fan of Jerome a.k.a. Vincent. I cannot figure out whether to consider human compassion as a part of this scene.   But more importantly, what made the ending very significant is the overwhelming sense of triumph that the main character has brought with him after making to the mission and the great sense of relief that he was not apprehended despite revealing his true identity.   The ending of the story gives out a message that no matter how much we go through or change ourselves, we can never lose the person that we truly are and even the best technology cannot take that away. Reference    What is Genetic Engineering. Mothers for Natural Law.   Retrieved 11 February 2008 at Are We Playing God? Moral and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy.   Retrieved 11 February 2008 at Coates, J., Mahaffie, J., and Hines, A.   2007.   Genetic Engineering Benefits Society.   Retrieved 11 February 2008 at Genetic Engineering.   Discovery Education.   Retrieved 11 February 2008 at Ethical Issues Related To Life And Death.   Retrieved 11 February 2008 at

Kasanayan Sa Filipino Essay Example for Free

Kasanayan Sa Filipino Essay Romblon /rÉ’mˈbloÊŠn/rom-blohn, (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Romblon), is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region. It lies south of Marinduque and Quezon, east of Mindoro, north of Aklan and Capiz, and west of Masbate. Its capital is also named Romblon. According the May 2010 Philippine census, it has a total population of 283,930 people.[2] The province of Romblon is composed of three larger islands; Romblon Island at the center where the provincial capital is located, Tablas Island to the west, and Sibuyan Island to the east. It also includes the smaller islands of Banton, Maestro de Campo, Simara, Carabao, Carlota and Isabel. Approximately 187 nautical miles (346 km) south of Manila, the islands of Romblon lie on Sibuyan Sea, south of Marinduque Island and north of Panay Island. To the east is the island of Masbate and in the west, the island of Mindoro. The province is composed of three major islands: Romblon, where the capital city of Romblon is located, Tablas, the largest island in the province, and Sibuyan, the easternmost island. There are also four smaller island municipalities: Banton Island, Simara Island, Maestro de Campo Island, and Carabao Island. Most of Romblons islands have a mountainous and rugged topography, and are of volcanic origin. The highest elevation in the province is Mount Guiting-Guiting in Sibuyan, which stands at 2,058 m. The peak boasts one of the most challenging climbs in the country due to its jagged summit.[3] Due to its geography, the province is endowed with lush vegetation and mineral resources. The fertile soil nurtures various agricultural activities. Being an archipelago, its coasts are dotted with numerous fine, white sand beaches such as in Carabao Island and Cresta del Gallo. Offshore, Romblon is a rich fishing ground. The islands lie on the migratory path of fishes from the Sulu and Visayan Seas, passing the Tablas Strait, Sibuyan Sea and Romblon Pass.[4] Romblon does not have a truly pronounced wet or dry season though the heaviest rainfall occurs from September to January. The driest months are March and April which are the best months to visit the province. 27Â ° Celsius is the annual mean temperature, with February being the coldest month with temperatures dropping to 20Â °C, and May being the warmest month wherein temperatures could reach 35Â °C. Southwest monsoon winds or Habagat pass through the province from June to October while northeasterly winds or Amihan blows through the islands from December to February. This Turtle Sanctuary Project is Sponsored by Chris Bech and his wife Theresa – Beach Land Estate Inc. Tablas Island. We are proud to pass on our latest pictures of the new baby Turtles that were hatched yesterday at our Turtle Sanctuary in Ferrol, Tablas Island, Romblon. 64 new baby turtles all hatched and are healthy and eating well, there are another 120 eggs in another batch, and 80 in another batch of eggs, they should hatch within the next week or so, we will update you. We have made a turtle egg protective area, to protect the eggs from predators, and we have a nipa hut where we assist visitors and have viewing area, we are in the process of making a new web site Romblon Marine Life which will be published early January 2012.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

English Literature Essays Beauty Truth Art

English Literature Essays Beauty Truth Art Beauty Truth Art In his famous apostrophe to the â€Å"Grecian Urn†, the immortal poet, John Keats, wrote: â€Å"Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say’st, â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty,†Ã¢â‚¬â€that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.† This very famous statement on Beauty and Truth and their interchangeability poses a very important question in the postmodern era. Art and its convention of the ‘Beauty’/‘Beautiful’ has imperceptibly changed over the decades, from something that should reflect the Ideal (and in reality, twice removed from it, as per Plato), or in essence complete and offering pleasure to the senses to something, that expresses the unique consciousness/angst of the creator. Art has thus rediscovered its definition for beauty. If beauty is truth, then it may dare to be grotesque too, for truth may be harsh or horrific. Beauty does not suggest something beautiful in the actual sense of the term, but that, which comes closer to the true expressions of the self and the vision of a generation’s psyche, that is fragmented, kitsch-like, complex and beyond the metanarratives of a suffocating conformity. Beauty has evolved into a freedom for expression. Contemporary art, especially questions the paradigms of aesthetic values, with artists like Chapman Brothers or Justin Novak producing artwork that are clearly meant to provoke reactions and challenge notions of beauty, that had it’s roots in Kant’s â€Å"Critique of Judgment† (1790). It contemplated on the â€Å"pure† aesthetic experience of art consisting of a â€Å"disinterested† observer, pleasing for its own sake and beyond any utility or morality. Now, the very word ‘pleasing’ may have different boundaries and contemporary art is trying to escalate their claims. If Marcel Duchamp made a fountain out of a urinal in 1917, that hurtled the Dadaist movement and that later amplified into a surrealist tendency looking into primitive art for their subconscious inspiration, to reveal the mental process, then the essential motivation behind the whole thing was subversion. If primitivism was motivating a new dimension by which beauty of the mind was revealed, then Picasso completely subjectified art and personal experience into a fourth dimension and created a cubist movement to claim a break down of a canon that no longer held on to techniques, symbols and least of all universal criteria for judging anything. There are many socio-ideological forces behind the same and the destructive World Wars had many reasons to question the notions behind the traditional idea of Beauty, and it addressed the subjective, transcendental and alienated psyche of modern man. Metaphysical hopelessness gave way from absurdity to beauty, while the meaninglessness of this ‘Being’, made beauty seem more akin to grotesque, either by derision or by the light of their tragic truth. What makes the question more intriguing is that, whether contemporary art has found a better form of beauty (constructed to please and create a certain discursive paradigm) in the grotesque, since it frees us from any moral and political/ideological constraints? Can it be linked to greater dimensions of teleological magnitude, or should it be treated as an alternative method of understanding true aesthetic, if not the complete aspect of aesthetic itself? Is grotesque possible without the knowledge of Beauty itself? I shall attempt to answer the following questions that I raised, with a few examples. One must first understand the idea behind perception and the dialogical force that surrounds it. If the world is raised as an illusion in one’s mind then the mind has been symbolically trained to read it as a language. This matrix of complex spontaneity is ‘paradigmatically’ and ‘syntagmatically’ (Roman Jakobson, 1987) being challenged, when Grotesque plays the part of Beauty. The Dystopia arises out of a shattered archetype that must restructure itself to include elements of the grotesque within the beauty, and reach towards the same aesthetic experience: the sublime. But interestingly what produces sublime is shock. But one must not confuse this with the cathartic experience of the ‘Tragic’ pity and terror, but something quite opposite to an ideal communicative situation that all such art produces. Thus this element of mimesis and/or representation of the ideal have given way to an â€Å"infinite subjectivity† (Hegel, Lectures on Fine Art, given in the 1820s), or the abyss of the human mind and condition. But the self is â€Å"interpellated† as per Lacan and later Althusser too estimated the impossibility of a single position from where one can judge, since the self was preconditioned with a lot of â€Å"logocentricism† (Derrida), which are again socio-culturally specific as per Barthes. Thus there is a complete inquiry into art through the artists’ personality or self (or selves). Justin Novak’s â€Å"disfigurine† often conforming to the bourgeoisie values, distort them to such an ironic extent that one cannot miss the counter realism that it offers. Often it serves to offer no alternative reality, but just launches one amidst a grotesque re-examination of old values and with its attendant disillusionment. Once the silent barrier between class and gender is dismantled, the escape is into nothingness – the sublime height of vast unending problems, and this underscores the definite presence and the horrors of undying conformism. If truth is beauty, then Novak’s artworks reveal the finer sides of it by shattering the comfortable and compartmentalized thought processes with which one can objectify art from a safe distance. The grotesque closeness of these truths, give beauty to the mind by releasing it from the shackles of confinement and overpowering illusions. Truth is not universal, but a power to accept the inextricable complexity of human behaviour, mind and his/her interrelationship with their social, cultural and historical environment. With Novak’s work one is left to ponder these very questions. Is Grotesque a rebellion? Or is it an inextricable element of beauty? Grayson Perry’s ceramic works portray this polemic, further, by making them superficially beautiful (as beauty has been notoriously claimed to have been) and underneath it remains the darker motives of an artist who tries to wrest with disturbing truths (or shall one call them home truths, with a larger social back drop to them) that question issues of public/private dialectic. His works that deserve mention here are, â€Å"Coming Out Dress 2000†, â€Å"We’ve Found the Body of your Child 2000†or the â€Å"Boring Cool People 1999† (reminds one of Eliot’s famous lines from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock â€Å"In the room the women come and go, Talking of Michaelangelo†). Not only does he deal with issues like cross-dressing, child abuse and social sterility (about spiritually hollow â€Å"cool† fashionistas or the demanding violence of the utilitarian age), but also, he plays with this abnormal interrelation between beauty and grotesque. He raises questions about taste and the sublime. In short he subverts the notion of beauty with beauty that is skin deep! Grotesque thus becomes Beauty that is kin deep in this works! Reality is a diabolical faà §ade and Perry questions whether hegemony denotes or connotes the medium of taste in art. Thus equating expression with grotesque beauty beyond the limited categories of high or low taste, his avant-garde expressionism becomes a solitary modicum of aesthetic experience, which is new and which is whole (if whole comprises of an aesthetic stance that offers no definite and certain understanding of art’s end but generates a range of teasing/shocking possibilities of that, which is an illusion in itself: Bourgeois ideology). Figure 1: Coming Out Dress, 2000. He poses as Claire, his feminine alter ego. All his works deal with these two sides to his sexuality quite deeply, especially in ‘Transvestite Brides of Christ 2000’ and ‘Contained Anger1999’, respectively, that questions the significance of male-role models. But what is interesting is that Perry is experimenting with representation, rather then pottery, and that is why his artwork combines issues of an innocent observer or rather tries to destroy the comfortable distance with which an observer may guard their subjective spaces. Transvestite to transgression, the Chapman Brothers question the inevitability or orthodox value of canonical (classical) artworks. This travesty or mockery of canonical lofty seriousness is reflected in their works, through devises of defaced and tortured figures, which for them amount to the complete picture of Beauty (of an era that is grotesque, in it’s realization of a past, present and future that cannot bear to sift through the beastly side of socio-cultural conditions, anymore or unlike the others). This becomes a subject behind their sculptures that bursts with mockery, tragedy exploding with grotesque farce. They usher in a new experiment with taste, bad taste and the notions of good taste. Art moves into the realms of public or mass ‘low’ category, which becomes an essential democratic medium for evoking or carrying forward a provocation to rouse the sense of that horrifying answerless void. With the Chapman brothers there is a sadist tone attached to their insult or reiteration of Goya’s influence especially in their recreation of his â€Å"Disasters of War†, which inflict bold horror. But the grandeur of that horror is reduced to a trivial and yet a sardonic sensation taste comes off them. They twist the sensation of violence into an aesthetic ground and arouse a variety of physical and mental demands for perceiving Beauty amidst such a squandering grotesqueness. Beauty here lies in the release from holding back appreciation, awe and complete shock. Violence does not stand-alone and nor does any other human emotion. â€Å"Sex, 2003† is thus desire, decay, diabolical, deliberate, freedom or defeat. Purity is not that far from its pornographic mockery of it and they are interrelated in their apparent verisimilitude. A true representation of kitsch art, their works like Fuckface and Zygotic Acceleration, roused shock as they attempted to portray the sexualisation of children due to the media and increased gender awareness. These treatments nevertheless push questions about morality that grotesque beauty actually challenges. Thus morality and beauty in its aesthetic straight forwardedness seem to flatten out newer boundaries of experiences, which the Chapman brothers challenge through their craftsmanship. Traditional Sculpture, especially in the hands of the Chapman Brothers and Justin Novak or Grayson Perry are objects of anti-canonical parody, grotesque imitations or thought-provoking reverse-discourses. All these postmodern artists are challenging aesthetic experience. All these artworks succumb to one the power of the grotesque that sublimates beauty with its truth, and they make us realize that truth is not about a fixed standard, but accepting the actual absence of it. What makes contemporary art more beastly in its beauty is the power to derive happiness (or sado-masochist satisfaction) out of this grotesqueness. The grotesque shocks but this is a pleasure in itself, because it is the very representation of the consciousness. Theatre and artwork met with experimentalism in the stage by Artaud, who made audience a spectator to cruelty that is harsh, exceptionally brutal and yet beautiful. By shattering estrangement and by creating something that allows no ‘objectivity’ (in the likes of Kant or Brecht) Artaud demands a complete involvement of the senses. Moreover, this is where art threatens to change the soul of the perceiver by its dominating beauty, which horrifies the perceiver with its verity and unique angst. Wittgenstein’s concept of seeing-as, allows contemporary art to shun master narratives completely and standout on their own purely as visual sensations. From British Avant-Garde art that confuses common and the uncommon (like use of mannequin by Chapman Brothers or genitals replaced by the faces in their remake of Goya’s Disasters of Wars series). Grotesquerie is about questioning the status quo, about unflinching self-criticism and about embracing outsiders. From Simon Carroll deconstructing the chronology of ceramic vases with his pastiches like â€Å"Thrown Square Pot2005†, engages the observers mind with complex questions that he poses through the irregular construction of his surfaces. The artists seem to dwell on the apparent hyperreality of contemporary situation, where art has become a vastly reproduced object – fractured beyond identity. Formlessness becomes the beauty without symmetry and deliberate cruelty an aesthetic grotesqueness. Thus the gap between what is apparent and what may actually exists gives the artists ample space to bridge this defined categories with crushing forces of expressions that though grotesque to the shocked senses is ultimately beautiful by virtue of its truth. Works Cited Eliot, T. S â€Å"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock†. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. Prufrock and Other Observations. London: The Egoist, Ltd, 1917;, 1996. [30.01.2007]. ON-LINE ED.: Published May 1996 by; Copyright, Inc. (Terms of Use). Hegel, Lectures on Fine Art, (edited by Hotho) â€Å"Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art,† Vol. 1.translated by T. M. Knox, 1973. < > 30.01.2007. Jakobson, Roman. â€Å"Language in Literature†. Ed. Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1987 Kant, Immanuel: The Critique of Judgement (1790), translated by Meredith, J. Adelaide: ebooks, 2004 Keats, John. Poetical Works. London: Macmillan, 1884;, 1999 [29.01.2007]; Online-Ed: First published February 1993; published July 1999 by; Copyright, Inc.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

College Admissions Essay - The Search for Truth :: College Admissions Essays

College Admissions Essay - The Search for Truth    Whoever said that we were supposed to take everything on faith? Not God, that's for certain. He's always told us to try it for ourselves, and see if it makes our lives better. I'll never forget the day my high school chemistry teacher had a nervous breakdown because he tried to understand a universe where there was no God, whatsoever. (That is true, to my knowledge, by the way.)    I've always been surprised how much faith people put in science, though. Many of the greatest scientists believed in God, and my speculation as to why, is that those scientists knew just how amazing it was that they could discover an equation to measure gravity, or one that made energy and matter that same. People, of course, had no idea what they had on their hands and worship it today as if it were God. Those scientists knew very well, after all their work, that any theory they produced was only awaiting its demise. The values that when put to the test, would prove it wrong. And then they'd find their mistake and fix it.    People have made something of a religion out of science these days. People treat it as a burden, rather than the enlightenment it is, but they also treat those far advanced in it, as infallible and beyond mortal ken. Not so bad as the inquisition days, believe you me! But the Inquisition really only went underground, to explode again as science, this time trying to kill faith instead of logic. Luckily, the new inquisition only condemns people to a life of fear and hate, instead of religious bigotry, or even real religion, like being nice.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Main Street Essay examples -- Sinclair Lewis

Sinclair Lewis makes point of the efforts that Carol produces to reform her new home. These efforts can be perceived by the townspeople as unwelcomed and unsuccessful. Some of Carol’s ideas are ludicrous, out of proportion and not ready for the slow-moving town. She tries several different approaches to reforming the town from the moment of her arrival. She goes from architectural reform to poetic reform to artistic to introducing liberalism to amusing social functions. All of these tactics she hopes will spring forth a reform movement to beautify and culturalize the town and people. Her initial attempts at bringing the town out of its shell consisted of throwing fun and exciting parties. Such as her Chinese house-warming party on page 66. She plans this social event as a way to bring the people out of their normal funeral parlor routine of sitting in a circle and making small talk. For the moment she is successful, but soon after she implements sledding, skiing and skating o utings, people begin to recoil back into their normal routines. Again, Carol is frustrated with the progress of the town, and she soon feels rejected by the social elite at the Jolly Seventeen club on page 78. Her attempts to open the minds of the Jolly Seventeen to the issues of the lower class, backfires into a discussion of foreign incompetencies and laziness. Her reputation becomes the antithesis of Gopher Prairie social beliefs and structure. After presumably months of social reclusion, Carol is coe...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Romeo And Juliet - Fate Or Free Will :: essays research papers

The human condition follows the path of fate. Everyone makes choices out of their own free will which affects their life at that time, but will ultimately lead to their pre- determined fate. People inflict their own wounds during their life by the choices that they make. This applies in Romeo and Juliet and plays a major role in Romeo and Juliet’s lives. "A pair of star-crossed lovers" (I, i, 6) In the very opening of the play the chorus is singing about Romeo and Juliet, and predicts their life together as having a star-crossed conclusion. By already knowing from the beginning that their life has an ill-fated conclusion, we can see how their choices brought them to their death. Romeo and Juliet could see that their life together was not going the way they wanted, because Romeo and Juliet wanted to marry each other but there were many barriers between them. Both Romeo and Juliet had many failed attempts in their efforts to trick fate out of what was ultimately going to happen to them both. Hold! Get you gone, be strong and prosperous in this resolve. I’ll send a friar with speed to Mantua, with my letters to thy lord. (IV, i, 122-124) Juliet is to drink a potion to make her appear dead, and later wake to be free of the shame of marrying Paris. Here, Friar Lawrence is assuring Juliet that he will send a letter to Romeo, explaining their plan. Romeo doesn’t receive that letter, and he does not know what is to happen. Free will comes with great consequences. Friar Lawrence and Juliet inflicted their own wounds by not telling Romeo of their plan. If they had taken the time to make sure that Romeo got the information, their plan might have succeeded, and Romeo and Juliet would be free to marry each other. A greater power than we can contradict hath thwarted our intents. (V, iii, 154-155) After Romeo kills Paris, and then himself, Juliet wakes as Friar Lawrence rushes over to her. Friar Lawrence is saying that a higher power, in this case, fate, has ruined their plan. We know that Friar Lawrence is talking about fate when he says that they cannot contradict this power. You cannot contradict fate, it always has it’s way in the end, whether we know it or not. "O, I am fortune’s fool! (III, i, 135)".

Saturday, August 17, 2019

A Comparison of the Merits of using Software or Hardware Transactional Memory, against Traditional ‘Semaphore’ Locking

1. IntroductionTransactional memory is poised to take parallel programming a step higher by making it more efficient and much easier to achieve, compared to traditional ‘semaphore’ locking. This is because transactional memory is easier to handle when tasks are divided into several free threads, especially when these threads do not have common access to data. This implies that each section can operate on a processor core and that there is no connection between cores. It can be challenging when different task sections are not totally free – that is, several threads are forced to upgrade a singly shared value. The traditional approach to this utilizes locks and every time that a thread changes a shared value, it requires a lock. In this case, it is not possible for any other thread to receive the lock if another thread possesses it. Instead, the thread must wait until the thread that has the lock can change the shared value. This is likely to require a complex comp utation, and to take an extended amount of time before eventually releasing the lock (Bright, 2011). The release of the lock allows the waiting thread to continue. While this is an effective system, it faces several major challenges. A key issues concerns updates to the shared value that occurs occasionally; therefore, making it rare for a thread to wait at ‘no time’ – the state in which the lock based system can be efficient (Alexandrescu, 2004). Nonetheless, this efficiency commonly disappears every time updates to the shared value are made. Threads take too much time waiting for a lock to appear and are unable to provide any use when in this state.2.Lock vs. Lock Free Data StructuresWhile it may seem easy to handle a singly shared value, locks are difficult to use correctly and this is a challenge faced in real programs. For instance, a program with dual locks 1 and 2 is likely to encounter a problem called a ‘deadlock’. A deadlock is a case wher eby two threads require two locks and only have the option of acquiring lock 1 then 2, or 2 followed by 1. As long as each thread needs the lock in the same order this will not present any issues; however, if one thread needs lock 1 and the other requires lock 2 at the same time, this can cause a deadlock. In this situation, the first thread waits for lock 2 to become free and the second waits for 1 to be free. This exchange makes it difficult for both to succeed and results in a deadlock. This issue might appear to be preventable and only likely to occur when a program has dual locks; however, it can become a challenge to ensure each section performs the right function when this becomes more complex.3. Transactional MemoryIt can argued that transactional memory can solve the problem of lock conflicts. In this case of a deadlock, the programmers could mark the sections of their programs which change the shared data, so that each of the marked blocks is implemented within a transact ion. This means that either the whole block executes, or none of it does. The program can therefore identify the shared value without locking it. This allows for the program to conduct all the necessary operations and write back the value, eventually committing the transaction (Bright, 2011). The key transaction occurs with the commit operation in which transactional memory system ascertains that shared data has been changed after the commencement of an operation. If this is not identified then the commit updates, allowing the thread to go ahead with its function. In case the shared value has not been modified, the transaction stops and the function of the thread is rolled back (Detlefs et al., 2001). In this instance, the program retries the operation. It can be seen, therefore, transactional memory has several merits over traditional semaphore locking. For example, transactional memory is optimistic; this infers that the threads are positioned to succeed and do not look forward to acquiring a lock. This is in case the other thread makes an attempt to conduct a concurrent operation (Detlefs et al., 2001). In an instance of concurrent modifications occurs when a single thread is forced to retry its function. In addition to this, there are no deadlocks in transactional memory. Transactional memory is a programming approach that programmers are familiar with; the transaction and rollback process is not new to those who have handled relational databases because they offer a similar set of features. Nonetheless, blocks facilitate the ease of developing large programs that are correct (Alexandrescu, 2004). Blocks with nested atomic blocks will perform the correct function, although this is not true in the case of lock-based data structur es.4.Merits of the HardwareThere has been little attention given towards hardware compared to software-based implementations. It has also been noted that most real processors seldom support transactional memory and, therefore, modifications are necessary (Maged, 2004). However, there are systems that use virtual machines to undertake their primary function and in this regard there are changes for the .NET and Java virtual machines (Bright, 2011). In other cases, systems use native codes that require certain special operations to allow access to the shared data. This enables the transactional memory software to ascertain that the right operations have occurred in the background. Such implementations have the advantages of ensuring that the programs that are produced are bug-free (Detlefs et al., 2001). The data in cache contains a version tag whereas the cache itself can maintain many versions of the same data. The software sends a signal to the processor to commence a transaction and performs the necessary action. This then signals the processor to commit the work. If other threads have changed the data, resulting in many versions, the cache will refuse the transaction and the software will be forced to try again. Should other versions not be created, then the data is committed (Bright, 2011). This facility is also applicable for speculative execution. A thread can commence execution with data available, whereas speculatively conducting important work – instead of waiting for upgraded versions of all data needed – might mean waiting for additional cores to complete computation (Alexandrescu, 2004). If the data was upgraded, then the work that is committed provides a performance boost; the work had been completed before the delivery of the final value. Should the data turn out to be stale, then the speculative work is rejected and re-deployed with the correct value (Bright, 2011).5.Logical FunctionsA significant advantage that transactional memory has over traditional lock-based programs is that it support is an extension of a load-link or store conditional. Load-link is an undeveloped operation that can be implemented to build many types of thread-safe constructs (Maged, 2004). This comprises both mechanisms that are known, such as locks, and unconventional data structures, such as lists that can be changed by many threads at the same time without locking at all (Alexandrescu, 2004). The creation of software transactional memory is possible through the use of load-link or store conditional. Load-link or store conditional contains two sections: firstly, it utilizes load link to recover the value from memory where it can then conduct the functions it needs to perform on that value. When there is a need to write a new value to the memory, this utilizes store conditional (Detlefs et al., 2001). Store conditional can only succeed if the memory value has not been changed after the load link. In case the value has been changed, the program has to return to the beginning and start again. These systems are restrictive because they do not follow writes to each memory bytes, but to the whole cache lines. This highlights the fact that store conditional has the potential to fail without modification of monitored value (Bright, 2011). Bright (2011) explains that store conditional is also most likely to fail if a context switch happens between the load link and store conditional. Transactional memory is a version of an enforced link load and store conditional; each thread can perform load link on several different memory locations (Maged, 2004). In addition to this, the commit operation does store conditional. This impacts on multiple locations at the same time, with each store either succeeding or failing (Bright, 2011).6.ConclusionIn conclusion, a lock-free procedure is sure to sustain the progress of a thread executing a procedure. While some threads can be put on hold arbitrarily, one thread is certain to progress each move. The whole system can then make progress despite the fact that some threads might take longer than others. It can be seen, therefore, that the use of software or hardware transactional memory presents better ways of ensuring consistency of stored data when accessed and manipulated by several concurrent threads than traditional ‘semaphore’ locking. Consequently, lock-based programs fail to provide any of the above mentioned guarantees7.ReferencesAlexandrescu, A. (2004) Lock-Free Data Structures. Available at: http://www.drdob [Accessed 12th March 2014]. Bright, P. (2011) IBM’s new transactional memory: make-or-break time for multithreaded revolution. Available at: [Accessed 12th March 2014]. Detlefs, D., Martin, P.A., Moir, M. & Steele, G.L., (2001) ‘The Twentieth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing’, in Lock-free Reference Counting, ACM Press: New York. Maged, M.M. (2004) ‘Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2004 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation’, in Scalable Lock-free Dynamic Memory Allocation, ACM Press: New York.

Friday, August 16, 2019

A General Definition of Financial Reporting

Fiscal coverage in authorities can be seen as a sum-up of the authoritiess public presentation, or capacity, in raising, managing, and utilizing public money. Another manner of showing the function of fiscal coverage is to state it goes manus in manus with answerability. Accountability is frequently considered one of the basiss of good democratic authoritiess. Officials are given authorization and duty and it is the undertaking of the functionaries to clearly convey actions taken and whether these actions fall within the prescriptions of jurisprudence and community wants. Measuring public presentation or accounting with regard to raising, managing, and utilizing public money is a complex issue. The standards are many, diverse, and sometimes conflicting. In some instances there is a accepted regulation or criterions doing organic structure that can cover selected facets of fiscal answerability. In general, nevertheless, there may be more than one regulation doing organic structure. For case, there can be governmental and private regulation doing organic structures. Residents of the affected legal power may hold their ain positions or inadvertence commissions. More by and large, in a democratic society there are frequently norms that provide counsel on answerability. These norms, excessively, may diverge. As an illustration, see the dissension that can originate over a revenue enhancement determination. Is it equal to cover current and future duties made by determination shapers ; does it associate payments to benefits received ; does it enforce greater loads on one group as opposed to others ; and is it hard to roll up? Fiscal studies can be generated on all these issues. This text focuses more on the collectivity of fiscal determinations made by authorities, province and local authorities in peculiar. How does money raised screen disbursement and duties? What is the current and future fiscal wellness of the legal power or subentities covered. How make these determinations comply with the outlooks of regulation or criterion doing organic structures? Governments issue many types of fiscal studies, but the most across-the-board and seeable at the province and local degree is the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report ( see this chapter, lesson 2 ) ( CAFR ) . The CAFR includes the fiscal statements. In this text the fiscal statements provide the chief focal point and therefore the term fiscal statement is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase fiscal study. Fiscal statements are reasonably demanding in format and supply a quantitative expression at the operating success, fiscal wellness, and conformity of the authorities describing units. The fiscal statements are frequently referred to as the GPFS ( General Purpose Financial Statements ) and can on occasion be taken out of the CAFR and shown individually. The signifier of these statements and the definitions of what they seek to measure are germinating. One signifier or definition may do success, wellness, and conformity appear adequate while another, less so. For case, wit h some signifiers and definitions adoption can be used to hike opportunities for reported success ; in others, it can non. As a consequence, this text will look critically at the current signifier and definitions and examine options. Another of import issue is that historically, the focal point of governmental fiscal coverage is on how good the authorities did in transporting out lawfully authorised maps for the different subentities and financess of authorities. In general, fiscal studies for authorities do non cover the authorities as a whole, but instead the studies screen separate subentities and financess such as all the money raised and spent for diversion or all the money raised and spent for a parking garage or all the fiscal activity for a constituent of the authorities such as school territory. Subentities and financess are at a degree below the full authorities organic structure or legal power. Subsequently, more attending will be given to the separate subentities and financess that are the soon the cardinal unit for governmental accounting. The chief private regulation doing organic structure, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board ( GASB ) , is sing many alterations for describing, such as a stu dy for the authorities as a whole which will probably be called the entity broad position to possibly supplement the fund position. Theoretical contentions aside, at a given point in clip, fiscal studies are based in portion on accounting regulations and other types of regulations or criterions that frequently capture the daily pecuniary minutess and events of authorities. The minutess are are so summarized into fiscal studies. These studies typically make direct appraisals of fiscal public presentation and many affairs that impinge on fiscal public presentation. Technically, one of the major ends of fiscal studies is to measure fiscal success, conditions, and conformity of the financess and other accounting subentities. With such information, one possible benefit of fiscal studies is to assist people make better determinations about their community, their authorities, and their economic system. These determinations may associate to the election of functionaries, ballots on new undertakings, and even the determination to remain in or travel off from a community. Further, the coverage may supply information so that determinations that make the legal power better off. Considerable systematic and official work on governmental fiscal coverage has been done for province and local authoritiess. This text focuses on the work done for province and local authoritiess. This text besides concentrates chiefly on the CAFR ( this chapter, lesson 2 ) and the fiscal statements ( this chapter, lessor 4 ) in the CAFR. Elementss of Financial Reports — Government and Business In general, authorities has significantly different accounting regulations for developing fiscal studies than does concern. Government relies more on a hard currency footing or liquidness and one-year logic to measure one-year activities, whereas concern relies more on an accrual logic to incorporate appraisal of both one-year and long term events. Besides accounting regulations, authorities Torahs and ordinances play a big function in the these governmental fiscal studies. Therefore, the frequent refer to conformity. The lawfully authorised budget of the legal power is critical to fiscal coverage in authorities. That is, the fiscal studies assess the grade to which the authorities disposal, peculiarly fiscal direction, was in conformity with the budget. Because of the importance of the importance of the one-year budget in answerability, authoritiess soon make a clear differentiation between current or one-year points and long term points in their fiscal studies, with accent on current points. Similarly, authoritiess differentiate between liquid assets and fixed assets, with more attending to liquid assets. For the most portion, fiscal studies are intended to supply information for people outside the direction of the authorities. These people are frequently referred to as external users. Because these external users do non hold direct control over the content of fiscal studies, parts of the studies are audited, for illustration, the hearer seeks to certify that the fiscal statements are soon reasonably in agreement with by and large accepted accounting rules ( GAAP ) . Regardless of where or how accounting criterions are developed for fiscal coverage, the standard scene procedure is extremely controversial since a good trade can be at interest in describing fiscal success, conditions, and conformity. A study exudating hapless consequences, conditions, or conformity can upset users. Therefore, the standard scene procedure is sometimes shaped by values and political force per unit areas to obtain favourable fiscal screenings. Many of the alterations in accounting and coverage that have shaped concern accounting criterions have merely begun to come in or be discussed in authorities. The attempt to mensurate current and long term economic chances and convey that information in a blunt manner so external users can apportion resources to those concern they feel will gain has non made a important impact of province and local fiscal coverage. Some of the grounds have to make with the legal nature of province and local authorities. Some have to make with political reserve to publically expose hapless consequences. Some have to make with the questionable rightness of an accent on economic sciences instead than a balance toward economic sciences, societal equity, involvement group political relations, and conformity. Recent proposal by GASB suggest as greater involvement in economic success and chances. A List of Important Footings Associated with Financial Reports — A Expression at single points. accounting regulations Called by and large accepted accounting rules ( GAAP ) , accounting regulations are developed through a due-process system or became accepted with common usage. one-year budget The legislative assembly yearly ( some biannually ) authorizes what grosss to raise, what money to borrow, what promises to do, and what activities to pay for. one-year or current points v. long term Government fiscal studies emphasize and by and large have more stiff accounting regulations for fiscal minutess that involve money raised, spent, or due during the current twelvemonth. Long term points are set aside or de-emphasized until they come due. audited In general, audits effort to find whether the presentation of fiscal information conforms to a set of standards, with the standards in authorities including both accounting regulations and authorities Torahs and ordinances. authorized Given authoritiess ‘ heavy trust on legality, fiscal studies focal point well on whether money was raised, handled, and spent harmonizing to legal mandates. The word conformity becomes really important. better determinations Fiscal studies are intended to better determination devising. These determination can be economic such as a good return on investing or political such as how to vote on a campaigner or issue. capacity