Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Commodification of women Essay

Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience(viewers, readers, listeners)to take some action with respect to products, ideas or services. Most commonly the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common . Advertising messages are usually paid for by various sponsors and viewed via various traditional media ; including mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail ,or new media such as website and text messages. History of Advertising Going back in time Egyptians used papyrus to make sale messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia . Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Rome . Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa and south America. The tradition of commercial wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art painting that date back to 400 B. C. History reveals that out of home advertising and bill boards are the oldest form of advertising . As education became an apparent need and reading ,as well as printing developed advertising expanded to include hand bills . In the 17 century advertising started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers ,which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press, and medicines ,which were much sought after as several diseases ravaged in Europe As the economy expanded in the 18th century advertising grew along side . During the next five decades it emerged as a strong industry. In 1840 Volney B. Palmer a calculating businessman established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amount of space in various newspapers at a concessional rate and then resold the space at higher rate to advertisers. At the turn of the century ,there were few career choices for women in business, however, advertising was one of few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in the household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women’s insight during the creative process. In fact ,the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a women –for a soap product. Although tame by today’s standard ,the advertisement featured a couple with a message â€Å"the skin you love to touch†In the 21st century , marketing through the internet has opened new frontiers for advertisers. A number of websites have been created exclusively for selling products and services e. g. Ebay. com, Flipkart. com, Shadi. com etc. Even the search engine Google has started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant , unobtrusive ads intended to help ,rather than inundate ,users. This has lead to plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising. How important has advertising become in our lives is clear from the fact that in 2010 , spending on advertising was estimated at more than 300 billion dollars in U. S and 700 billion U. S dollars worldwide Impact of Advertising Nowadays, advertising is omnipresent in our lives and has a really strong influence in our decisions as consumers. The aim is no longer to inform us of a new product and its use , it is more to create a desire and longing to possess it. Moreover ,advertising has become a centre of attraction . Television shows are devoted to it, a Museum is dedicated to it in Paris and we discuss advertisement in our daily lives. It can make us laugh, it can shock us, which shows that advertising has a link with the customs and the codes which govern our society . For instance the Museum of advertising in Paris presents a retrospective about the Chinese advertising from the beginning of the 19th century to the present day to show the impact of governments on the advertising , the link between advertising and communist society and reflects the Chinese history Women and Advertising: From the Feminist Social Perspective No issue related to women can be debated without reference to the feminist theory. Feminist social theory has been concerned with understanding fundamental inequalities between women and men and with analysis of male power over women. Its basic premise is that male derives from the social, economic, political arrangements specific to particular societies. Endorsing the view ,American feminist Catherine Mackinnon says: â€Å"men create the world from their point of view ,which then becomes the truth to be described . This is male world†. Initially feminist theory based its study on â€Å"things† such as housework, inequalities or male violence but now it has to be more concernd with â€Å"words† and with issues of representation. One of theses issues which is much discussed is women and their role in sphere of Advertising . Going with Mc Kinnon ,it can be said that in this field ,till recently everything was created from the male point of view . The interest was focussed on women in a house, as a wife, mother, homemaker and well wisher. This was image that would sell. From Marxist Social Perspective: The Marxist theory concentrates on the role of women in economic growth. Women are now capable of contributing towards the economy and share equal monetary responsibility. Hence in this paper ,women in advertising are represented in two ways: †¢Women as models to attract the consumers and sell the products and services †¢Women as consumer and target audience The advertising of the 20th century shows indeed the evolution of the women’s status. Historians refer to this century as â€Å"the century of women and sexual revolution† because the situation of women and consequently the relations between men and women changed considerably in western societies. Women obtained a real political, economic and domestic power of decision. POTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENT The end of 19th century saw many women going to work ,as workers in the factories ,as domestic or employees, so that the time for household task and cooking was reduced. Having less time restricts the possibilities for women; but having a professional situation means beginning a long process of liberation . Work is money ,and money permits to buy the products ,not only the ones which are targeted to women ,but also other products . The 1920’s are the period of real evolution on the vision of women in advertising . Paris welcomes the poster realized by Leonetto Capiello for the â€Å"Delices† pasta ,which shows the first bare legged pin up of a beautiful women. Even though a liberated women had emerged in the 20 century but still until the 1950’s advertising gave the image of a passive women who was a housewife, a caring wife, a devoted mother and a symbol of beauty. But she was still not very active in other areas. Maternal streak was fully exploited during this period. A mother keeping the house clean with â€Å"Dettol â€Å" or cooking healthy food in â€Å"Dalda† ghee were representative advertisements of this period. A much discussed ad is of a â€Å"Baby Johnson Soap† that presents a chubby baby referring to family, childhood , happiness and other values directly linked to home. Similarly ‘Lux’ soap has always opted for celebrities whether its is Ava Gardner in Italy or Sharmila Tagore and current Katrina Kaif in India. The sales of these mentioned products was much above expected The models used were women and the target was also obviously women –whether a housewife, mother or simply a women desiring to look beautiful. The advertisers were sharp enough to realize that a good study of the target can bring considerable profit even though these cases confirm that the most shared values are almost the ones that men consider as â€Å"feminine†. Another aspect of women is the housewife . Many products for cooking and cleaning are created keeping a housekeeper in mind. They promise time saving devices, more free time to spend with family and healthy environment Progressive Women: A Change in Image The 1960’s witnesses a progressive unveiling of the body with the mini skirt. The stocking arrived as a liberator and the feminist movement was becoming popular. The advertisement for ‘ dim’ tights in U. S. A brought forth the concepts of a free women . The slogan highlighted was â€Å"in dim, you are free, you are beautiful†. From 1965 onwards the image of women changed. She asserted herself more and more and advertising presented a new independent women. She was no longer limited to housekeeping and in children’s upbringing ,from now on she worked and gained her autonomy. This changed image was also fully exploited by manufactures. Many advertisements related to the ready to serve food hit the market. ’Maggie’ diversified its range and launched the Mousseline instant mashed potatoes and the â€Å"three crowns† ready to serve dishes . Washing machines were introduced along with ovens, food processors and vacuum cleaners because they went well with the image of a progressive women . Instant coffee became a hit as did soup ,noodles and pasta. This was because the women of the 1980’s and 1990’s had emerged as â€Å"the wonder working women†. She was confident, reliable and independent but at the same time she had not forgotten or abandoned her traditional role of a mother ,wife and a daughter . The advertisement of ‘Lizol’ disinfectant portrays a lady doctor who wants her house clean with the said product and it makes her house germ free. Also noteworthy is another recent advertisement which features a busy boss ordering his Secretary not to permit anyone to enter. Surprisingly she enters but only to remind the boss that being a diabetic he needs to eat every two hours ,leaves a packet of sugar free Nutralite oat biscuits ,says sorry and leaves. The point is that-when the wife is absent the task is to be performed by a Secretary ,again a women. Yet in the field of advertising the emphasis still is on the stereotyped image of women . She is an object of appeal to men, attracts by her body, skin etc. The list of advertisements pertaining to beauty products ,perfumes ,soaps ,lotions ,shampoo etc is endless. Decorative models who are passive and non functional are used. Their primary activity is to adorn the product /service as a attractive stimulus. They are like mannequins with the least lifelike roles . †She† is in an artificial world ,often obviously so in the way she stands in dummy poses. The way these hackneyed stereotypes are repeated reveals a kind of discrimination ,clear and easy to denounce but hard to end to. This archaistic stereotype of women is strong and stubborn ,and for sure the advertising does not really permit to make its vanish. Indian advertising is to much dependent on the stereotyped image of women . Till now she is shown in the kitchen, running around her family, carrying grocery bags and then the husband giving her a â€Å"Moov† massage or she taking an advertised â€Å"Revital For Women† vitamin. The message clearly is â€Å"carry on with your duties but with the product suggested†. Similarly for cholesterol control products like cooking oil (Saffola) or oats, it is always a women who is concerned about her husbands blood pressure but rarely the other way around.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Eeffective spheres of development Essay

I believe that to facilitate human learning, a more flexible, more nurturing environment would be needed. Human learning is most often an active cognitive process. Habituation and observational learning require participants to actively attend to the environment, to encode what they have witnessed and to retain this information before showing any evidence of learning. By developmental, I mean the emphasis on the identifiable patterns of growth and models of perceiving and responding, characterized by increasing differentiation and progressive integration as a function of chronological age. By Interaction, I mean the emphasis on the child’s interaction with the environment – adults, other children, and the material world, and second to the interaction between cognitive and effective spheres of development. Indeed, whether one is a formal leader or an informal leader, one can lead with power. A leader is also a follower and sometimes it is important, even necessary, for the leader to listen to others, and follow them. Whatever one’s position or relationship, others may know more than the leader. As Will Rogers was fond of saying, â€Å"We are all ignorant, only on different subjects. † So there are times when the leader also needs to follow. It will all depend on the situation he is in. This is my verbal communication weakness. Since I have a lot of inputs in my head, I get carried away when talking about something. I may get high marks for encouraging them at times I tend to be a boor when I dominate a conversation. I do not want to be branded an egocentric fascinated with the sound of my own voice. I am conscious about barraging them with my words. My life in college has been such an exciting time for me. I never thought it would be this good. Meanwhile, attention is important because individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and take heed on the significant aspects of the modeled behavior (Delores Isom, 1998). Retention is significant because unless the individual remembers what it has paid attention to, there would be no mental guide for emulating the modeled behavior. Reproduction refers to the physical ability to transduce the mental guide into actual behavior. Motivation provides the impetus for imitating the modeled behavior, thereby demonstrating what one has learned. Motivation can either be positive in the form of reinforcement, or negative in the form of punishment. People must be allowed to try things out and fall. It also means that they must be given answers only after they have generated questions. Applying this in a teacher-student relationship, in order to leverage the processes of natural learning, teachers must offer answers on an as-needed basis. Instead of making the students conform to a schedule of instruction, we must make the schedule of instruction conform to the student. Teachers should take first things first. They must first be concerned with goals, since before they can proceed, students must first acquire goals which interest them. Goals must underlie education. This emphasizes what Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) meant about teachers not forming any expectations about their students but allowing them the freedom to try things on their own. I think these critical thinking skills can help people achieve peace in the workplace. For example, the responsibility aspect will spur more insights about ethical dilemmas that arise at all levels in the business world. People may face situations in their work or dealings with other people in which ethical dilemmas arise. The individuals in these cases are faced with ethical questions in their relations with customers, employees, and members of a larger society. More often than not, the answers to these questions are difficult because it involves weighing of values. Conflicting values in a given situation are not capable of compromise. One has to choose one over another. Sometimes, the ethically correct course of action is clear, and hopefully individuals act accordingly. But the answers are often not simple. The dilemma is most commonly presented when ethical concerns come into conflict with the practical demands of business. The field of business ethics has grown from the interest of a few philosophers into an interdisciplinary area of study that has found a secure niche in both the liberal arts and the standard business curricula. Credit for this development belongs to many individuals.

10 Rules For Managing Global Innovation

This is a review of the HBR article â€Å"10 Rules for Managing Global Innovation† for the authors Keeley Wilson and Yves L. Doz . Keeley Wilson is a senior research fellow at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France .Yves L. Doz is the Solvay Chaired Professor of Technological Innovation at INSEAD. INSEAD is ranked the 5th best business schools for an average of three years period by the Financial times ranking. â€Å"10 Rules for Managing Global Innovation† is written by the authors to pin point ten rules that the authors see crucial for a multinational company to manage its globally dispersed business units and still keep the innovative process going smoothly and efficiently.The authors list of the 10 rules is as follows,1. Start small: invlolving all team members in a short term projects and easy to achieve in order to build it and to make all members ready for the big challenging project 2. Provide a stable organizational context: and thus avoiding employees feeling insecur e and lose focus on the innovative process. 3. Assign Oversight and Support Responsibility to a Senior Manager: to avoid miscommunication, conflict, and stalemates over crucial decisions 4. Use Rigorous Project Management and Seasoned Project Leaders: to impose discipline, structure, and a shared sense of purpose across the locations.5. Appoint a Lead Site: ensured prompt decision making and a project successfully delivered on time and on budget 6. Invest Time Defining The Innovation: so that everyone working on the project has the same understanding of the goals and their individual contributions to them. 7. Allocate Resources On the Basis of Capability, Not Availability: Teams are selected not because they are the best qualified but because they are available at the time , when resources became available elsewhere, this module was moved to a team that had the necessary capabilities , but by then, morale had been dented, time wasted, and costs increased.8. Build  Enough Knowledge Overlap for Collaboration: in order to ensure critical interdependencies between modules. 9. Limit the Number of Subcontractors and Partners: to limit the additional complexity and time trying to manage different partners. 10. Don’t Rely Solely on Technology for Communication: regular face-to-face communications are important in order to drive projects forward, share knowledge, and reinforce trust between teams and project leaders.Article Critique:The article clearly states 10 rules that are important for managing global innovations in the author’s perspective. As they have done researches on companies that known for their high innovation spend for more than a decade in order to present a set of guidelines for successfully managing global innovation projects. The Authors identified the problems that MNCs face clearly in the article and their examples include big MNCs like Citibank, HP, Hitachi, Infosys, Intel, LG Electronics, Novartis, Philips, Samsung, Siemens, Vodaf one, and Xerox in the article which gives great credibility to their guidelines for managing global innovations.However, the article could be seen as being very generic and each rule in the article should be more elaborately explained and a guide for implementing those rules. And this should have been addressed as the limitation of the article. On the other hand, this overview provided by the authors gives the readers a good point to start from, especially if they are to know what managing innovation in an MNC means. Furthermore other external references are confirming the author’s perspective. Concerning the second rule, other business schools professors are confirming the same idea like Rita Gunther McGrath professor at Columbia Business School.In her book How the Growth Outliers Do It. â€Å"Stability is what enables these companies to innovate and to maintain steady growth. Coupled with transparent values, it allows employees to feel confident about taking the risks that experimentation requires.† Google Co-founder, Larry Page, had the idea of Google Books for a long time. People thought it was too crazy even to try, but he went ahead and bought a scanner and hooked it up in his office. He began scanning pages, timed how long it took, ran the numbers and realized it would be possible to bring the world’s  books online. Today, Google Books Search index contains over 10 million books.This example shows how important it is to start small for big projects to succeed as the authors clearly stated in the first rule in the article. Other literature was found to be supporting the role of management discussed in several rules in the article. â€Å"The findings reveal that management involvement has a positive and significant impact on all dimensions of innovation featured. It is also found that organizational innovation has a mediating effect on the association between management involvement and technical innovation.† (â€Å"The role of management involvement in innovation† by Stanley Kam Sing Wong published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited)Concerning the author’s last rule about communication, the case of Toyota â€Å"The Americanization of a Japanese Icon† clearly explains the importance of not relying on technology alone for communication. â€Å"The Fact is That Toyota and it’s U.S subsidiaries don’t always see eye to eye, especially when it comes to making design choices for the American market. Sometimes their conflicts are over small issues, other times there are clashes over crucial product-strategy decisions.†Conclusion:The Authors successfully managed to give the reader an overview of how to manage innovation in a MNC. Moreover, other literature and examples was found to be supporting the authors point of view. However, it would have been of more benefit if there were more specific examples to elaborate how this rules could be implemented successfully each of these rules were stated and a guidelines

Monday, July 29, 2019

139 DB wk4 KJ Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

139 DB wk4 KJ - Essay Example These people are governed by a common set of workforce principles (Waxer). Cirque du Soleil encourages its employees to contribute to the organization. As a result, Cirque du Soleil shows represent a blend of global influences and are well appreciated by people all over the world. Cirque du Soleil is a good corporate citizen as it dutifully discharges its corporate social responsibility. Cirque du Soleil has reached dizzy heights and has an international presence. The company’s founder Guy Lalibertà © has not forgotten his humble past and therefore helps underprivileged sections of the society. The company sets aside one percent of its revenue for outreach programs to help at-risk kids. Cirque du Soleil recognizes the importance of paying back to the communities in which it operates. These social initiatives enable Cirque du Soleil gain international goodwill. Ethnocentrism, the belief that one’s own ethnic and cultural group is important, plays a significant role in fulfilling this social role. Cirque du Soleil’s own team represents varied cultures from all over the world. People from diverse regions, beliefs and attitudes are treated with respect and dignity. The organization extends the same feeling of equality while contributing meaningfully to 80 communities in more than 20 countries (Cirque du

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

Nursing - Essay Example It provides the anticipated levels of education that nurses in the country should conform to. This is clearly spelt out in recommendations 4, 5 and 6. In order to ensure that I align myself with these recommendations, I will endeavor to earn my degree in the next two years. A degree forms the foundation of the advancement in career to the higher levels. After the degree, I look forward to a work experience of between three and five years. After this, I will go for the master’s degree. I strongly belief that there is need to balance between work experience and level of study. Upon completion of the Master’s, then I will get in for PhD in the next one or two years. Increasing the level of education will have far-reaching implications towards becoming a proficient nurse. The essence of gaining some experience in practice of nursing is geared towards providing a broad understanding of the profession. Theory and practice have many differences, of which I endeavor to explore. Education is very important because it will help me to explore the experience that I will have met in practice. This is the reason I am convinced that education and practice should go hand in hand; this is because they are complementary in nature. Education will also open me to new ideas and techniques that were not fully explored at the Bachelor’s level. Additionally, further education will open my mind in order to engage in research that will help promote nursing profession. My role in nursing will be facilitated by higher education. At the beginning of my career as a junior nurse, I will have the basic nursing tasks to conduct. With additional experience and higher education, my roles will have to change, for example, I will endeavor to specialize in research. Therefore, at the beginning I will have to work under a known researcher but later on will develop projects of my own. Having completed my master’s and PhD, engaging in research

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Beowulf Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Beowulf - Essay Example Thesis statement: Does Beowulf in the poem possess heroic qualities that can be termed under the real qualities of an epic hero? The most important quality of Beowulf that makes him an epic hero is his heroic quality. For instance, like a real hero, Beowulf was ready to travel a great distance to undertake dangerous tasks. When Hrothgar faced trouble from Grendel, like a real hero, Beowulf left his homeland (Geatland), killed the Grendel the monster and saved all. But Burton Raffel criticizes that the author does not give ample importance to Beowulf’s fight with monsters and dragons (Raffel xi). Beowulf praises Hrothgar on his nobility and brevity. This proves that he possesses the heroic quality of courtesy. When he entered the land of Danes, he left his weapons on the shore. This proves his courtesy towards the king and his people. Besides, Beowulf was ready to do anything to prove his courtesy. Beowulf was a brave warrior. For instance, he fought and killed Grendel the dragon, and his mother, another dragon. Besides, Beowulf reveals Hroogar that he did defeat five giants and chased them from the earth. Beowulf possessed the quality of loyalty. He proved his loyalty towards the king and his people by killing Grendel the dragon. Later, when he became the king, Beowulf did not allow his warriors to fight against Grendel’s mother. Instead, he proved his loyalty towards his people by killing Grendel’s mother by his own. Beowulf’s success as a leader proves his military skills. Besides, he was able to maintain a group of warriors with him to help in critical situations. He very well knew that his warriors may not be helpful in the fight with Grendel and his mother. So he went alone to face those demons/beasts /dragons. This proves his military tactics. Summing up, one can see that the heroic qualities possessed by Beowulf helps him to be a real epic hero with heroism, courtesy, bravery, loyalty, leadership

Friday, July 26, 2019

Communicable Diseases Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Communicable Diseases - Essay Example â€Å"Infectious diseases† have affected man at every stage of his evolution, but it is only recently that he has begun to understand that these diseases are not the result of â€Å"invisible† enemies, but rather microscopic ones. Communicable diseases are a group of infectious diseases â€Å"that are capable of being spread directly (through contact with bodily secretions) or indirectly (through contact with inanimate objects) transmitted from person to person† (Ilyas, p. 520, 2007). Common diseases such as influenza, measles, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS come under this heading. Their prevalence in a community however depends on the degree of defensive power of the body against that infectious agent. Communicable diseases can be termed epidemic â€Å"if the number of susceptible individuals is very large in a community and the disease is likely to spread rapidly, or if it occurs for the first time in an area where it was not previously present† (Ilyas, p520, 2007). However, â€Å"if the immune and susceptible individuals are equal in a community, the disease continues to smolder and is always present in that community, it is said to prevail in an endemic formâ⠂¬  (Ilyas, p520, 2007). A pandemic form is one in which â€Å"the susceptibility of the whole world or a country is increased for a particular organism† (Ilyas, p520, 2007). Some communicable diseases have been known for centuries. For example, Tuberculosis has been mentioned in literature by the name of â€Å"phthisis† or â€Å"dried up† by Hippocrates around 460 B.C. (Hippocrates, n.d.). Some diseases however, have only recently surfaced, but in short time have led to major global health problems. For example, the Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first discovered in 1981 in the US, when five homosexual men with a special type of pneumonia were tested

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Confederate Government Conspiracy to Assassinate President Abraham Research Proposal

Confederate Government Conspiracy to Assassinate President Abraham Lincoln - Research Proposal Example To that end, the Confederate government conceived a plan to kidnap Abraham Lincoln in order to force the Union to free Confederate prisoners of war. While the kidnapping never came to fruition, questions remain as to whether the Confederate government was involved in Lincoln’s assassination.1 It is fairly evident that Davis and key members of his government had conceived of, and funded, some initiative aimed at striking the Union beyond the battlefield. The Confederacy established an espionage department in 1864, which conducted covert operations from its base in Canada, helping plan and carry out the raid on St. Albans, Vermont.2 Many claims have been made about the independent nature of the conspiracy that orchestrated the Lincoln assassination. Skeptics insist that such a conspiracy likely began as a kidnapping plot involving the Confederate secret service and prominent members of the Confederate government. My hypothesis is that an intricately planned conspiracy involving Confederate agents in the U.S. and Canada, which ended in the assassination of the president, was carried out with the knowledge and involvement of Confederate officials. It is possible that the assassination itself was simply an unplanned outcome of a kidnapping plot that had gone undetected by federal officials. Either Booth, secret service officers or the Confederate high command (or all three) at some point decided that the only remaining viable, practicable option was assassination. As Lincoln himself told journalist Noah Brooks in 1863, â€Å"I long ago made up my mind that if anybody wants to kill me, he will do it. If I wore a shirt of mail and kept myself surrounded by a bodyguard, it would be all the same. There are a thousand ways of getting at a man if it is desirable that he should be killed.†3 My research will address the origins of the kidnapping plan; the extent to which the Confederate government was responsible; and the exact nature of the decision to alter the plan from a kidnapping to assassination. III. Definition of Terms â€Å"Chaos Theory: The Tortuous Pursuit of Motive and Means in the Lincoln Assassination.† Key terms/headings in this proposal include: No direct evidence - Lack of clear evidence linking Richmond to the conspiracy The Booth factor – The likely influence of Booth in altering the original plan Of like mind – Federal authorities convinced Davis, other high officials guilty Scapegoats†¦and more questions – Hysteria obscures true motive, investigations Fact over fiction – Preponderance of practical evidence points to Richmond IV. Background The conspiracy’s original goal had been to kidnap Lincoln and carry him to a secure location. The conspirators pursued that goal with a specific outcome in mind: attack the Federal government at its source, free the prisoners of war and enable the Confederacy to fight on.4 In his summary argument in the conspiracy trial, government Ju dge Advocate John Bingham claimed that a paper found in Booth’s possession contained a secret cipher, used by Davis himself, to communicate with his agents5 Bingham asked, â€Å"Of what use was it to (Booth) if he was not in confederation with Davis?†6 Bingham went on to conclude that â€Å"my own conviction is that Jefferson Davis is as clearly proven guilty of this conspiracy as John Wilkes Booth, by whose hand

The topic will be in the instruction plus the attached file Essay

The topic will be in the instruction plus the attached file - Essay Example In the U.A.E, and indeed across the world, the problem should be tackled before the situation gets worse. Tackling the obesity issue effectively demands the appreciation of the root causes of the problem. Experts agree that the main factors behind rising obesity prevalence levels across the world are sedentary lifestyles (lifestyles devoid of exercise) and poor eating habits. In respect of eating habits, it is worth noting that the consumption of too much fatty, sugary, junk, and salty foods easily lead to obesity. To this effect, individuals should eat less of junk foods, consume more vegetables, and exercise more as ways of preventing and dealing with obesity. As a way of dealing with obesity in schools, the ministry of health plans to introduce physical exercise (P.E.) lessons as part of the school curriculum. By having three lessons of P.E. a week with each lesson taking 40 minutes, school children will become more active and burn excess fats in their bodies that would otherwise lead them to become obese. Secondly, the ministry plans to regulate the kinds of foods that children are given in school and those that are available in school canteens. The ministry will work toward ensuring that schools offer balanced diets and that canteens stock no junk foods. Cleland E. (June 16, 2013) â€Å"Obesity is a growing problem in the UAE, says health expert†. The National. Saberi Mahmood (July 6, 2012). â€Å"UAE the fifth most obese country in the world†. Gulf News. Retrieved from

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Article Critique on Facebook's future Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Article Critique on Facebook's future - Essay Example Market expectations regarding buyouts, development of a Google-like search engine or a new smart phone have been slashed as minor developments such as adding features seem to be at the epitome of the company’s business strategy at the moment. Nevertheless, the unprecedented success of the user-centric business model of Facebook and its latest foot forward into the mobile industry are major factors that shall shape the future of Facebook. Facebook has truly revolutionized the field of social networking and the way in which millions of users across the world can communicate for free with each other and share their interests, hobbies, activities etc. This is nothing less than a powerful customer database that keeps track of the demographics, psychographics and geographic traits of its customers. However, the collapse of Facebook’s stock has put tremendous pressure on the future of the company. This is because the market had been expecting something revolutionary such as an acquisition, creation of a Smartphone or the development of a search engine similar to that of Google. The announcement of the Graph Search feature and the absence of scope for revenue generation through it, however, shunned these expectations and the share prices fell.This suggests how Facebook’s future is largely hinged with its ability to offer either paid content or attract sufficient advertisers that enable the company make high profits. At the epitome of Facebook’s business model is the fact that the company offers data compilation and acts as a database of users is more significant than the motive of money creation (Eichenwald). Enhancing the financial strength of the company, therefore, requires establishment of newer business models. Furthermore, using the Facebook database as an advertising medium such that the site becomes attractive enough for advertisements remains a challenge. Most ads on the web require users to click on an item to purchase it. However, since Facebook’s business model was not based on immediate sales, it would remain a challenge to incorporate such ads. Even if the company did go ahead with these ads, it is difficult to predict how they would be compatible with the social networking feature offered by the company. Companies such as Google manage to generate ads by using the pay-per-click model where, once users indicate their willingness to buy an item through the search engine, they are flooded with ads (Eichenwald). This, however, remains a remote possibility for facebook. The most intriguing question perhaps is how to use the personal data that is uploaded by users almost every minute onto Facebook? This has, to some extent, been answered by the buzz marketing generated by Facebook Pages whereby advertisers interact one-on-one with customers and learn from their feedback. As opposed to Google that fulfilled customers’ demands, Facebook is stimulating demand (Eichenwald). A major leap in Facebookâ €™s success was brought on by its famous mobile advertising platform where advertisements could be placed in users’ newsfeed (Eichenwald). This allowed ads to go mobile rather than being just restricted to laptops. Also, this has been a breakthrough compared to typical banner ads which interfered with users’ online experience. Even though the net-positive results of having this feature favored its existence, various criticisms have surrounded it. The most important concern is that users are bombarded with advertisements which, sometimes, translates into fewer posts regarding friends compared to posts regarding ads. This puts off majority of users and

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

United States Federal Tax Law Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

United States Federal Tax Law - Assignment Example United States Federal Tax Law On January 3, 2009, Kathy and Frank Willow got married and entered into a contract with Hive Construction Corporation to build a house for $3,000,000 to be used as their main home. On November 10, 2010, when the outstanding principal balance on the mortgage loan was $2,500,000, the FMV of the property fell to $1,750,000 and Kathy and Frank abandoned the property by permanently moving out. They had made interest payments of $130,000 in 2009 and 2010 and paid $50,000 of principal in each year of those years (2009 and 2010) to bring the mortgage balance from $2,600,000 to $2,500,000 just before the date of abandonment. The lender foreclosed on the property and, on December 5, 2010, sold the property to another buyer for $1,750,000. More than one year after the foreclosure, and after heated negotiations, the couple convinced Outside Lender to cancel the remaining debt. So, on December 26, 2011, the lender canceled the remaining debt owing. Kathy and Frank are filing a joint return for 2011. On December 26 2011, Kathy and Frank had $15,000 in a savings account, household furnishings with an FMV of $17,000, a car with an FMV of $10,000, and $18,000 in credit card debt. The household furnishings originally cost $30,000. The car had been fully paid off (so there was no related outstanding debt) and was originally purchased for $16,000. Kathy and Frank had no adjustments to the cost basis of the car. Kathy and Frank had no other assets. ... Kathy and Frank had no other assets or liabilities at that time, except for the Disputed Amount that remains in dispute. (a) What are the tax consequences to Kathy and Frank, if any, for each year? It should be noted that foreclosure occurred before Kathy and Frank cancelled their debt; therefore, they are liable to gain or loss from the foreclosure. Since they maintained personal liability for the $ 750,000 of the remaining debt, then they were liable to cancellation. Additionally, the insolvency exclusion cannot apply in the Kathy and Frank case since their indebtedness did not qualify for the principal residence (Lyon 64). However, the same could have only applied if their insolvency could have been excluded instead of the indebtedness. Additionally, it should be considered that the remaining part of the debt just before the cancellation did not qualify as principal residence indebtedness since only part of the loan could qualify as the principal indebtedness. Therefore, Kathy and Frank must have ordered for the cancellation. (b) Same as (a) except Hive Construction Corporation financed the purchase of the house for Kathy and Frank and Hive Corporation agreed to reduce the debt to 1,750,000 on December 26 2011 and Kathy and Frank continue to live in the houseand there was no foreclosure in 2010? To this extent, Kathy and Frank do not have the right to elect insolvency exclusion as could be in the case of principle residence exclusion. However, they are liable to apply for the insolvency exclusion to $500,000 for the nonqualified debts since such debt is never qualified as principal residence indebtedness. Kathy and Frank have no tax attribute up to the year 2010 other than the use of basic

Monday, July 22, 2019

Bending Stresses in a T-Beam Experiment Essay Example for Free

Bending Stresses in a T-Beam Experiment Essay Realistic and verifiable experiment results †¢ Optional TecQuipment’s Structures Software package for extra ‘virtual’ experiments that simulate and confirm the results from your hardware and allow extended experiments †¢ Optional STR2000 unit including TecQuipment’s Structures Software package for automatic data acquisition and virtual experiments †¢ One of many interchangeable experiment modules from TecQuipment’s modern, flexible and costeffective Structures teaching system †¢ Ideal for classroom demonstrations, or students working in pairs or small groups. The experiment hardware is a T-beam that fits onto a Structures Test Frame (STR1, available separately). Students adjust a load cell that bends the beam and, when connected to the optional Digital Force Display (STR1a, available separately), it measures the bending force (load). Strain gauges and a digital strain bridge measure the strains in the beam. Dummy strain gauges compensate for temperature variation and balance the strain bridges. The equipment includes a lead for connection to the Digital Force Display (STR1a, available separately). The lecturer guide provides details of the equipment including sample experiment results. The student guide describes how to use the equipment and gives experiment procedures. For extra ‘virtual’ experiments, TecQuipment can supply the optional TecQuipment Structures Software (STRS), for use on a suitable computer. The virtual experiments simulate the tests that you do with the hardware. They also extend the choice of tests than that available using only the hardware, for example: higher loads, uniform loads or different test specimens. This extends the student’s learning experience. For automatic data acquisition of your experiment results, TecQuipment can supply the optional Automatic Data Acquisition Unit (STR2000). Supplied as standard with the STR2000 is TecQuipment’s Structures Software that displays and logs your experiment results and gives the extra virtual experiments. Bending Stress in a Beam Essential Ancillaries †¢ Structures Test Frame (STR1) †¢ Digital Force Display (STR1a) Recommended Ancillaries †¢ Structures Software (STRS) for virtual experiments or †¢ Automatic Data Acquisition Unit (STR2000) for automatic data acquisition and virtual experiments Operating Conditions Operating environment: Laboratory environment Storage temperature range: –25? C to +55? C (when packed for transport) Operating temperature range: +5? C to +40? C Operating relative humidity range: 80% at temperatures 31? C decreasing linearly to 50% at 40? C Specification Nett dimensions and weight: 880 x 210 x 100 mm, 6. 5 kg Packed dimensions and weight: Approximately 0. 75 m3, 8 kg Load.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

History Of The Revolt Of 1857 History Essay

History Of The Revolt Of 1857 History Essay Took place in Meerut, was one of the most important events that occurred in the historical background of South Asia. It was commonly known as the Sepoy Rebellion. It was mainly important due to the fact that it was a very first attempt to gaining independence of India by all means of going against the British rule directed by the British East India Company. There are several different factors that led to the convergence of this revolt which include: Dalhousies annexation of Awadh in 1856, role of the greased cartridges of rifles, the siege of Kanpur, the dissatisfaction of Indian civilians towards the British economic and social policies over many decades, and the aftermath of the revolutionary uprising. Before the revolt had even begun, there was a wide selection criteria of recruitment of sepoys based on caste and experience. In 1772, Warren Hastings was appointed the first Governor-General of the East India Companys Indian territories, with a task of setting up ordered system of government in British India. One of his first undertakings was expansion of companys army base. This move was taken to support establishment of strong and permanent civil administrative functioning throughout Indian subcontinent (Metcalf M, 56). The Company heavily recruited Indian soldiers in the army. The recruited Indian army man sepoy was a mix of men from Hindu and Muslim societies. Hastings insisted on recruiting soldiers from higher Hindu castes, like Rajputs and Brahmins, and rejected those who had served Nawab as unreliable. The Company also adopted military practices to accommodate cast and religious customs of Indian soldiers to avoid any social grievance amongst them. This high cast ritual sta tus left government vulnerable to protests, whenever sepoys detected the infringement of their rights and social and religious customs (Metcalf M, 61). The sepoys showed signs of dissatisfaction throughout the first half of nineteenth century over British Company carelessly adding new provocations, such as the passage of General Services Enlistment Act of 1856, which required soldiers to undertake to serve abroad after the refusal of units to fight Burma. The afghan debacle of 1842 had also led the company to widen the circle of caste and regional groups from which they recruited in to the Bengal army. This new recruitment policy was disliked by the Rajputs and Brahmans who were the only people initially recruited in Bengal army (Bose Jalal, 70-71) The next focus of the revolt was Dalhousies annexation of Awadh in 1856. This important event caused a political and economic conflicts and lead directly to the mutiny and rebellion the very next year in 1857. The reason for this is because no questions were asked about the lack of heirs since the nawab ruler was simply accused of misgovernment and the state was finally annexed against his will. The transfer of power over the nawabs protests offended the Muslim reputation. Tax collectors who were called taluqdars, peasants, and artisans also participated in the revolt in order to collapse the newly installed British administration in the residency of Lucknow which was the same place where the downfall of nawab was planned (BoseJalal, 72). The British camps panicked as they found out that there could be a possible end to their rule on the hundredth anniversary of Plassey (BoseJalal, 72). In addition, this event had an effect on the British armys role of religion because faith could no t divide the Indian army rebellions. Their common cause was the anti-colonial, patriotic, and Mughal ruler as proclaimed their true sovereign of the heterogeneously constituted group. Muslims and Hindus mutually participated in the revolt and both used religious rhetoric towards wider mobilization, yet religious identities were part of multiple identities which separated caste, jati, language, and tribal class. Awadhs annexation resulted in loss of honor and prestige for regional superior groups especially upper caste sepoys. On the 10 May 1857, sepoys of Meerut heavily protested British officers for introducing new Enfield rifles. These rifles were introduced because it was more accurate and effective then the old rifles being used. The rumor spread among the soldiers that cartridge made for this new rifles were packed in mixture of beef and pork fat, and cover of those cartridge had to be bitten off prior to loading (Schmidt, 72). Such mixture of fat was offensive to both Hindus and Muslims. Eighty-five of the Indian soldiers were brutally punished for refusing the use of these new cartridges. After this even Indian soldiers were getting confident with their belief that British company is trying to destroy their religion and society before forcing their conversion to Christianity. On a night after eighty-five of the sepoys sentenced to imprisonment, the sepoy cantonment based in Meerut massacred the English residents of town and marched towards Delhi to start war against British under the leadership of Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah (Metcalf M, 101). The Seige of Kanpur is another key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857. After the rebellious sepoys left Meerut, where they initially started the mutiny, they marched down to Delhi next in order to convince a weak Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II who was ineffective and had no power, in order to assist them against the British (Schmidt 72); However, news of the rebellion spread throughout the central gangetic plains, central and eastern India and similar rebellion outburst amongst the sepoys at Kanpur. Unfortunately, nothing seemed to work at the end since the group lacked unity and went to different leaders for help. The besieged British in Kanpur were not prepared for an extended siege and surrendered to rebel Indian forces under Nana Sahib in return for a safe passage to Allahabad. The evacuation from Kanpur was quite violent when it turned into a battle. Those captured were executed as an East India Company rescue force. British women and children were killed in Kanpur and bel ow 200 rebels were slaughtered in Lucknow. British forces made violent retaliatory attacks against the rebellions and civilians after the recapture of Kanpur and the sepoys in the Kanpur siege were taken to the Memorial and forced to lick blood stains off its floor and walls. Overall, the dissatisfaction of Indian civilians over British social and economic policies leads to the revolt due to a response to multiple grievances. One of the important grievances of all was the singling out of religious communities leading to breaks in unity between Hindus and Muslims. The revolt was taken as a holy war even by some sections of Muslims (Bose Jalal, 74). The revolt was also an infused sense of patrionism for the people of their country, if not nationalism (Bose Jalal, 73). However, the British were singling out the religious communities and attempting to break the unity. Hindus and Muslims felt the necessity to build and preserve Muslim and Hindu community. Even the Muslim leaders were aware of a possible separation between the Hindus and Muslims by the foreigners. Therefore, Muslim and Hindu leaders held meetings in order to bring back unity for the same goal of independence. Both communities had realized how colonial rule was identified as the common problem and how the independence was necessary so they had to fight for their rights in order to save their own nation. Other grievances included the severity of revenue assessments in which new revenue systems also lead to the sudden loss of their lands which was forced by landlords into poverty (Schmidt, 72) and the demeaning of princely and landed elites such as the nawab downfall of Awadh. The reason for this revenue issue was because the farmers were not able to meet their debt due to higher taxations imposed on them by the British resulting in the landlords loss. Lastly, the British social policies angered many Indians. This included the abolition of female infanticide, thuggee, and sati (Schmidt, 72). The aftermath of the 1857 revolt resulted in a reaction against British racial arrogance which was a key feature of the mid-Victorian era (Bose Jalal, 76). The British had won in 1858; however it was not without long-term effects because Company rule in India was replaced by Crown rule in which the parliament assumed full control over the British Indian Affairs (Schmidt, 72). The rebellion itself only served to harden the lines of racial hatred. There was brutality coming from both sides. However, the rebellion faced capital punishment for the killings of British women and children. Although most were hanged, thousands were strapped and blown up in front of cannons. Even after the war had ended, the mental and psychological wounds of it did not. The revolt impacted the governance infrastructures because the taxation system was remade in order to restore the finances of the Indian administration. For example, income tax was imposed on wealthier urban groups for the first time. Finally, the revolutionary uprising of 1857 was a movement which portrayed Indias patriotism and unity. The Sepoy Rebellion changed the shape of the British empire in ways which may have had helped their attitude through the actual Independence of India in 1947. The unique characteristics of this revolt involved resistance, intensity, and the development to a certain degree. The aftermath of the revolt brought beneficial reforms into the country of South Asia. Indias first determination in the Revolt of 1857 to fight for their freedom even after Indias loss against British rule remains the most memorable movement of South Asian history.

New Zealand Political Values

New Zealand Political Values Things generally influence one another even in small ways. The relationship among these matters can be just simple that have little impact on people. However, there are things which affect considerable number of individuals, a locality, a country or even the international community as well. Health is one of those things. A person, family, society, and nations are all involved when discussing this topic. There are factors that have direct and indirect effects which relate to planning, implementation and evaluation of healthcare mechanisms and interventions. These are the demographic distribution of populations, religious beliefs, political values, ethnicity, traditions, and human values. New Zealand has a small population with an estimated resident of 4,531,400 as of 30 September 2014 (Statistics New Zealand). Data from the year 2013 show that males are greater from children to middle age but the female numbers are greater during the latter part of life. The median age is 37.4 years; population growth rate is 0.85 per cent; birth rate is almost double compare to death rate but is relative low. Migration rate is 2.24 in a thousand people. Infant mortality rate is low with only 4.65 in a thousand live births. Life expectancy is higher among women with 82.94 and men with 78.79 years. Literacy has a very high rate overall. Data related to health have generally positive trends. Information like this is significant on how to make better intervention. The government has to scrutinize the details in order to give appropriate solutions to the issues, in relation particularly to the declining numbers of men during old age compare to women who live several years more. Programmes such as lifestyle modification and more education that improve the life span of men should be given more emphasis. Men are usually more exposed to health risks such as alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and hazardous working environment. These can be attributed to the fast deterioration of health condition due to the accumulated damage on the body. Political values are acquired by the people through â€Å"political socialisation†. It can be from the family first, then schools, friends, work, travel, life experiences and media such as televisions, radio, and social networking sites via the internet. The present situation is related to the history of a certain nation in terms of how they experienced it. New Zealand had the British concept and ideas from a long time and up until now. There were important changes as time went by. As of today, people are empowered that they are able to participate in policy making in relation to health. For instance, the legislations are being passed after the involvement of different sectors during formulation. Groups and organisations are being asked to impart their opinions regarding a specific policy which can affect their interests. So in this way, it can have impact on the health interventions being formulated by the authorities. The citizens are able to see the government as their prot ector that takes care of their well-being. And also, this shows that the people are recognized, equality is evident, and the honesty on part of the government that it should serve its people. Another thing about New Zealand is citizens do not want any corruption from their public officials. They are not expecting that elected officials will use their positions to do illegal activities for personal interests. Religion affects health in terms of practices and beliefs. A country can have many classifications as far as faith is concerned. There are varieties of religion within New Zealand, majority are Christians that includes Catholic, Anglican, Methodist and Presbyterian. There are also growing numbers of people associated with Sikh, Hindu and Islam respectively. Since the migration is going up, people from other countries with different faith come in, along with them are diverse practices and beliefs as well that can be an issue one way or another in relevance to health. One good example is the prohibition of blood transfusion in other religion. Another is the food restrictions like not eating pork or beef, during fasting period, and many others. The government should recognize these situations thus providing necessary measures to deal with it. A way to address it is to review the existing policies to make it appropriate to the present circumstances. Human values refer to the behaviours of men that are correct in every aspect. These are the basis of legislations, guided by the concept of doing the right thing. Usually it starts in the family, parents being as the model showing values to their children then eventually learning from outside environment thru teachers at school, friends, and the community. Human values are significant part of the society because they provide identity and pride as well to the people living within a community. And leaders with human values can produce a direct impact in dealing with the problems of the nation particularly in making health interventions. The virtue of selflessness must be present in all elected and public officials. Every nation has distinct traits when it comes to health and human values. New Zealand is a country that is striving to put these standards into a higher level so that people will benefit in the long term up to the next generation. Ethnicity and traditions are interrelated factors that influence health interventions. New Zealand has a growing ethnic background which in connection to the entry of migrants from various parts of the world. It is undeniably adding to the list and starting to be part of the system. While health interventions are focused on European, Maori, and Pacific people, Asians have considerable numbers already living and settling in this country; also people from the Central and Latin Americas. Since the government chose to open their doors to foreign people, it should provide policies emphasizing the status of migrants in respect to health. Although, Maori health status has been recognized and being pushed to produce positive outcome for the natives of New Zealand after years of experiencing low health services and inequalities, the authorities should not take aside the large number of migrants currently living on their land. The presence of the aforementioned determinants provides an array of information to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions. These factors serve as guide to come up with the needed mechanisms, to improve services and to promote equality in health status of affected groups. REFERENCES Levine, Stephen. (2012). ‘Political values – New Zealand politics and political values’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved from Levine, Stephen. (2012). ‘Political values – New Zealand politics and political values’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved from Statistics New Zealand. (2014). Top Statistics. Retrieved from

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Essay --

Volkswagen has long positioned its TDI offerings as fuel-efficient alternatives to conventional or hybrid powertrains, but the company also has a reputation for producing go-fast diesels in the form of the Touareg TDI. Although the name Touareg might sound a little quirky, behind the Volkswagen Touareg's badging is one of the most compelling packages in today’s SUV. First developed by engineers from Porsche, the Touareg platform is the base on which both the Porsche Cayenne Diesel as well as the Audi Q7 are developed. Beneath its high-set bonnet sits a 3.0-litre TDI turbodiesel engine that boasts 242bhp. True, 242bhp may not sound like much for an SUV that weighs 2155kg, but it’s the torque that counts in a vehicle like this and it is something that the Touareg has in abundance – 500Nm to be precise. When the torque number is so much higher than the horsepower, you can anticipate good things and in this case there is an instant thrust especially when moving from a standstill, entering the freeway, powering up a steep hill or overtaking. The engine delivery is simply endless and dizz...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Brain Transplant: An End to Parkinsonism? :: Biology Essays Research Papers

The Modern Day Brain Transplant:An End to Parkinsonism or the Beginning of a Greater Debate? It sometimes begins with a feeling of lethargy, being "down in the dumps," or shakiness (1). Maybe it begins with a twitch of the pinky finger that was not there before. Speech becomes more difficult and softer to the level of a whisper; this is often accompanied by irritability. Movements become rigid, unsteady and slow (2). A tremor develops, with trembling of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face. Later, walking is often only accomplished through short and shuffling steps, intermixed with a loss of balance and instability (3). These symptoms usually progress until the person is incapacitated and unable to do simple tasks such as brushing their teeth, buttoning clothing, or turning newspaper pages (1). This is a description of a person living with Parkinson's disease. According to the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, there are one million people living with Parkinson's nationwide (1). Several public figures have also revealed their private struggles with Parkinson's including Michael J. Fox, Muhammad Ali, Janet Reno and Billy Graham (1). As evidenced by the names listed, Parkinson's strikes an array of people, it is generally a late onset disorder, however, in some cases, such as with Michael J. Fox, Parkinson's has a "young onset". Parkinson's disease is a disorder that results from the depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The basal ganglia is the part of the brain responsible for movement. When 80% of the dopamine-secreting cells in a specific part of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra, are lost Parkinson's symptoms develop (4). The cause for the neuropathology of Parkinson's is still unknown. Two possible causes of Parkinson's that have been researched include environmental factors such as toxins and defective genes (5). Treatments for the disease vary widely. The standard treatment is to prescribe levodopa (L-dopa) (4), the precursor of dopamine to patients. This is given because dopamine itself does not cross the blood-brain barrier. The levodopa is converted to dopamine inside the brain and is effective in improving the severity of symptoms dramatically. Unfortunately, long-term usage of levodopa causes a myriad of side effects, such as head bobbing, grimacing, abnormal movements of the trunk and limbs (2). With time, the side effects of levodopa become more dramatic than the original Parkinson's and the thus outweigh the benefits of giving the drug. Other treatments include a brain "pacemaker," deep brain stimulation with electrodes, and pallidotomy (destroying a portion of the globus pallidus in the brain).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Short Circuit Prison - Original Writing :: Papers

Short Circuit Prison - Original Writing Suddenly Mr and Mrs Mcgrathy's television set sprung into life and the room lit up as the introduction played for the 6'oclock news. The newsreader was looking very upset as he shuffled his papers, then he spoke "as the rain thunders down in central London" he paused to blow his nose then continued "we are very, very upset and sorry to announce than the head of state, her majesty Queen Elizabeth the second, also head of the commonwealth has been assassinated" He paused again as a tear trickled down his face "the police have arrested a certain Bill McGrathy" There were gasps of breath as the McGrathys were shocked at the mention of their sons name It was 9'oclock at night and it was pitch black the lightning struck and illuminated a tall dark grey building known to the locals as Short Circuit Prison, travelling along in a police van under armed guard Bill McGrathy was thinking of what his parents would say if they ever saw him again. Surrounding the prison was a dark forest. As the convoy travelled along a dirt track through the forest Bill McGrathy looked out of the slit window. He saw the branches reaching into the road like long bony fingers trying to extract the souls of all who passed by. Back in London there was dispute in Buckingham Palace the queens body had disappeared and there were fresh footprints of blood leading from the room. P.C Smith was closely following these footprints. Suddenly loud footsteps were heard and P.C Smith was getting closer when the lights all went out there was a bang and a loud crashing sound as something dropped down the centre of a spiral staircase on a rope and P.C Smith felt the wind as the thing came flying past him then a large blunt object struck him round the head and he fell to the ground he was dead. Wrought iron gate clanked for the first time in two hundred years as Short Circuit Prison's recently installed electricity sprung to life.

Agent Banking for Bangladesh

| | VOL 20 NO 157 REGD NO DA 1589 | Dhaka, Thursday, March 28 2013| http://www. fe-bd. com/index. php? ref=MjBfMDNfMjhfMTNfMV85Ml8xNjQ1NzA= | Bangladesh Bank mulls agent banking for financial inclusionM S Siddiqui Agent banking is a financial service offered to customers by a third party on behalf of a financial institution (FI). An agent is an entity that is engaged by an FI to provide specific financial services on its behalf using the agent's premises.It is an additional delivery channel that can enhance the convenience, the outreach of quality and affordable financial services, particularly to the underserved, in a more cost-efficient manner. Such an arrangement is a cheaper way for FIs to reach out to the underserved population. The use of the term ‘agent' is not necessarily a reference to an agent in the traditional legal sense of a party authorised by a principal to act on the principal's behalf and for whom the principal is liable with respect to activities taken by the agent within the scope of its agency relationship or contract.An agent is any third party acting on behalf of a bank, whether pursuant to an agency agreement, service agreement, or other similar arrangement. In most countries, the principal banker is liable under a law for the actions of its agents, whether such actions are explicitly or implicitly authorised. Liability for the actions of a non-agent entity acting on behalf of the bank may be different and will often depend on the contractual agreement.However, a bank's liability (whether by law or contract) for third-party actors will likely impact the bank's policies and procedures, which will in turn impact the superviser's oversight of the bank. The Bangladesh Bank has many recent projects for inclusive financial packages to reach out to non-bankable citizens. Achieving financial inclusion therefore requires innovative business models that dramatically reduce costs for everyone and thus pave the way for profitable extension of financial services to the poor citizens. A major obstacle to financial inclusion is he cost-not only the cost incurred by banks in servicing low value accounts and extending banking infrastructure to underserved, low-income areas, but also the cost incurred by poor customers, in terms of time and expense in reaching bank branches. The banking agent method emphasises greater efforts towards achieving the vision of an inclusive financial system that best serves all members of society, including the underserved, to have access and usage of quality and affordable essential financial services. FIs can reach an additional client segment or a geographical area.Reaching poor clients in rural areas is often prohibitively expensive for financial institutions, since transaction numbers and volumes do not cover the cost of a branch. In such environments banking agents use their existing retail infrastructure. Lower set-up and running cost can play a vital role in offering many low income people their first time access to a range of financial services. Also, low income clients often feel more comfortable banking at their local store than walking into a marble branch. The clients benefit from the agents' banks with lower transaction cost and service, but closer to the client's home.Bankable persons visit stores anyway for groceries all the day, enjoy services with a smaller crowd than in branches. Globally, retailers and post offices are increasingly utilised as important distribution channels for financial institutions. The points of service range from post offices in the outback of Australia where clients from all banks can conduct their transactions, to rural France where the bank Credit Agricole uses corner stores to provide financial services, to small lottery outlets in Brazil at which clients can receive their social payments and access their bank accounts.It has been used very well in Latin America and Asia. There are few African countries that have taken up agency banking. Cheaper to operate: It has been found in research that agent banking systems are up to three times cheaper to operate than branches for two reasons. First, agent banking minimises fixed costs by leveraging existing retail outlets and reducing the need for financial agent banks to invest in their own infrastructure. Second, acquisition costs are lower for bank-enabled agents and bank wallets.The advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) has brought with it the tremendous innovation in the banking industry. Currently, agent banking is an integral part of modern banking in many countries. Banks in Bangladesh are offering services for transfer of money from overseas to any remote area of the country. The payment of different utility bills through mobile bank outlets is very common. The agent banking will provide much more services to the clients.Whether a client accesses his bank account at the agent's outlet or in a branch or at an ATM does not make any dif ference. Technology can enable banks and their customers to interact remotely in a trusted way through the existing local retail outlets. Customers can be issued bank cards with appropriate personal identification number (PIN)-based or biometric security features and the local store-the banking agent can be equipped with a point of service (POS) device controlled by and connected to the bank using a phone line or wireless or satellite technology.Infrastructure requirements can be further reduced by using mobile phones both to hold â€Å"virtual cards† for customers and as a POS device at the store. Responsibilities of agents: The agents have many responsibilities. Such responsibilities include – * apply diligence in validating a customer's identity and transactions to avoid entering into fraudulent transactions or dealing with fraudsters; * maintain a transaction record book, being evidence of every transaction undertaken in the specified format or in such a manner as required by the bank.The transaction record book should be the property of the bank and be returned to the bank by the agent upon termination of the contract or when it is fully completed before issuance of a new transaction record book; * comply with the bank's Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-money Laundering/Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) requirements and/or laws or other regulations in force; * keep details of customers or customer transactions confidential; * maintain their connectivity with the internet in order to gain access to the web agent portal; provide sufficient cash for the location offering cash load and payout services; * comply with the central bank regulations, where the online web portal is in use; * display merchandising materials provided at their location; * ensure employees are trained by the bank on agency operations. Banks also have to ensure that agents, as extensions of the banking system, are able to provide professional customer service, ke ep records, handle cash, and manage liquidity. As a result, one of the primary questions regulators grapple with is who can act as an agent.BB's initiatives: The ongoing global expansion of high-tech telecommunications infrastructure, coupled with the increased availability of advanced information technology services, is having an impact on almost every industry, including banking. The Bangladesh Bank (BB) plans allowing agent banking to gear up further its drive for financial inclusion aiming to help the government achieve sustainable economic growth. The BB has already laid the necessary foundation for agent banking by introducing mobile banking that has already got a good response, especially from rural people.Currently, eight banks are providing mobile banking services involving the country's major mobile phone operators. Many countries permit a wide range of individuals and legal entities to be agents for banks. Other countries limit the list of eligible agents on the basis of a legal form. For example, India permits a wide variety of eligible agents, such as certain nonprofits, post offices, some shop owners, retired teachers and most recently, profit companies including mobile network operators (MNOs).Explicitly excluded, however, are the largest microfinance institutions (MFIs) registered as non-bank finance companies (NBFCs). Kenya takes a different approach, requiring agents to be for-profit actors and disallowing non-profit entities (like non-governmental organisations (NGOs), educational institutions, and faith-based organisations). In another example, Brazil permits any legal entity to act as an agent, but prevents individuals from doing so. The issue of liability: There is the delicate issue of liability of any mistake or misappropriation.Imposing liability on banks for acts of their agents is often the key factor in giving bankers the comfort needed to permit the use of agents. There is a point of imposing liability on banks for agents' non-comp liance with bankers' requirements. Imposing liability on banks for acts of their agents is often the key factor in giving banks the comfort needed to permit the use of agents. The bank liability for agents' noncompliance forces the agents to ensure professional agent behaviour and agents' compliance with agreed norms and rules issued by central bank.All countries that permit bank agents also impose bank liability for these agents. Brazil, a country with perhaps the most widespread use of banking agents, requires banks to be â€Å"fully responsible for services rendered by its agents. † Similarly, India requires that â€Å"all agreements/contracts with the customer shall clearly specify that the bank is responsible to the customers for the agents' acts of omission and commission. Interestingly, Pakistan imposes bank liability but states that the bank may â€Å"take steps it deems necessary to safeguard itself against liabilities arising out of the actions of its agents?. Thi s clause suggests that banks should enter into indemnification agreements with their agents-a protection that could steer banks toward large and well-capitalised agents capable of indemnifying the bank while forgoing agent relationships with smaller retailers who may nevertheless be better positioned to serve the low-income population segments. However, despite the widespread imposition of liability for agents' acts, financial inclusion goals would benefit from limiting the provider liability to those actions or omissions related to the provision of financial services.A failure to do so potentially increases costs of the financial services provider who may have to pay damages for agents' actions unrelated to the purpose of the agency. These costs could have a market chilling effect, negatively impacting not only on the emergence of viable business models but also the ease and speed by which such models reach a certain scale. Some countries more clearly limit the extent of liability to the financial services provided. For example, Kenya's banking agent guidelines impose liability on banks for agents' actions, even if not authorised in the agency contract.The service charge of an agent is a matter of concern. Nearly all countries prohibit the agent from charging customers directly for agent services, and some countries even restrict how much a bank can charge customers for agent transactions. Such well meaning regulations, aimed at protecting customers from excessive fees, can endanger the spread of branchless banking models, if they leave participants unable to make an acceptable return in light of the unique challenges and costs of reaching the poor.According to the BB plan, the agent could be an employee of bank who would offer people banking services including deposit and withdrawal of cash, transfer of fund, bill payment and the receipt of remittance, salary and government benefits. We would wait with interest for the BB rules on bank agency, particularly t he list of eligible agents, the liability of errors and omission of agents. The writer is pursuing PhD at Open University, Malaysia [email  protected] com| | |

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Boundaryless organization

Jack Welch of General electrical (GE) coined the phrase The Boundaryless Organization. He believed and has been proved correct, that GE would be much more effective if the cultural, geographical and organizational barriers that dislocated the employees become more permeable. He baffle emphasis on the boundaries ability to alter business, rather than get in its way. In the next era of the information term, we pull up stakes expect to have information from triune parts of the enterprise at our fingertips, wholly unified to suit our unique(predicate) needs, right away available, across geographies, time zones and organizational structures.In ordinate to procure that and to enable the information age to strongize its full potential, we need to quit Boundaryless Information Flow a endless secure stream of information seamlessly move deep down and among enterprises, across permeable boundaries. To touch Boundrayless Information Flow, a top animal trainer in an organi zation needs to gift in place infrastructure work that bring data sources together and fork over that information to those users and applications that need it. Creating the environment for integrated information has been a challenge.What more once regarded as necessary boundaries between the diametrical stages in operational processes designed to achieve the benefits of specialization, now represent silos delivering outmoded solutions, which do not allow for the sharing of information. Barriers at the business and technical level must be broken down. If we take the vitrine and strategic history of JetBlue and put it in the concept of Jack Welch, in my judgment the easiest boundary to remove was the cultural boundry in the whole organization that diverted their caution from bottom to top.For e. g. , simply by implementing the snacks avail instead of nutriment in the fledge have ease the passengers of every region, since food is always region specific provided snacks are commonly taken in every part of the world. Further this bill removed trolley movement within the flight i. e. also a pie-eyed step towards passenger comfort. Secondly, the most unenviable boundary to remove for JetBlue would be the geographical boundaries.Since, assessing in the synopsis the overall military operation of JetBlue, it witnesses their success because of their operation in specific region. However, in my opinion it would be real difficult to further enhance their operations in other regions since the attitude and functional environment JetBlue have developed, cannot be managed in every part of the world. (for more details, apprehend the www. opengroup. org/downloads official site)

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Body soul destinction Essay

Body soul destinction Essay

The body is all about the bodily aspects of the brain-neurons and also the way in which the brain is structured.Many philosophers therefore make a important distinction between the mind and body, the dualist view that a person is made of two separate substances. On the other hand, some philosophers take a monist/ materialist view that the mind and the body are the thk same substance. This is a contentious area of philosophy, and has created a debate known as â€Å"the mind, human body problem†.Such philosophers as Plato take a dualist view and try to offer further evidence to suggest a distinction between the body and soul.It is located in space and time.Plato used evidence such as the â€Å"world of the forms†. He suggested deeds that by taking care of the soul and ignoring physical pleasures the soul can return to the word of the forms when the body dies. The evidence of Plato’s theory can be seen everyday.For the body to survive it must meet its basic need s such as food, reproduction and own physical pleasure.

He thought that soul and the body were two unique materials.’ According to Aquinas, the soul operates independently of the body. Aquinas believed the only things that are divisible into parts decay. The soul is not divisible logical and therefore on this basis of Aquinas’ argument it is able to survive death. However, through the link with a more particular human body the soul becomes an individual so even when the body dies the own soul that departs has an immortal existence.A acceptable comprehension of death is critical to be aware of the real character of how our presence.This supports the dualist view as firstly, it proves that the soul is immortal and lives on after death, and secondly that the soul is separate from the body as the man who claims to be Jesus appears to be unrecognisable implying he has a different physical appearance. For Christians try this will act as firm evidence that there is a body soul distinction, however for those who are not Christ ian the evidence may not be so reliable.Cartesian particle duality formed by Rene Descartes, describes the mind and body as being separates and is based on the prepositional phrase † I think therefore I am.† Descartes explained that feelings and sensations cannot be located physically.

This economic theory is extremely vague however.Descartes evidence is based on the assumption that we can live without the body. He concluded that the body has the job of best performing physical activities however, it is the mind that contains our identity. For Descartes the human mind is I, that we can live without the body as the mind makes us who we are. Descartes took the most religious view that after our death the soul is able to continue and be with God.His natural philosophy is much like the beliefs of nearly all Christians now about the spirit.Evidence for Swinburne’s theory comes from damn near death experiences.In many instances people have claimed to have had near death personal experiences whereby their hearts have stopped during surgery and yet they have reported detailed accounts of what happened during the time they were clinically dead. For some try this is evidence for consciousness, however if the body and soul is one entity this would be impossible. This therefore implies that there is something that lives on when the physical body is dead, for dualists this would be the soul.

Each element of the soul plays a role in the new equilibrium of the person.Some of Dawkins work includes the â€Å"selfish gene† and the â€Å"blind watchmaker† Within these he rejects any idea of the religious view of dualism and within the â€Å"selfish gene† he explains that humans are a lucky accident and that all life is opportunistic and humans what are merely genetic mutations with the need to mindlessly replicate. Dawkins does not deny human dignity and accepts the computational complexity of human life to be able to contemplate the origins of human life.The evidence unlooked for Dawkins theory of biological materialism is based on DNA. Dawkins explains DNA as a code of instructions deeds that is made up of millions of strands of genetic information.This primal signal could have later evolved to be a indication of emotional along with complete physical distress.He stated that humans are one composite being, one substance. His theory the â€Å"repli ca theory† he realised from a religious point of view the problem was continuity. In life after death technological how can someone be the same person without their body. Therefore Hick suggests that there curfew must be some kind of replica.

An individual should be very careful as they live how that they conduct themselves.Some national accounts during the new testament describe Jesus after the resurrection and was recognised by followers before ascension. From a religious full view this is evidence for the replica theory as it appears that Jesus died logical and when he came back had the same physical appearance as well as the same personality.Identity theory puts forward a materialist view of the soul. Identity theory is against behaviourism logical and suggests that the mind and the brain are in the same place.Its part of a complete individual without it is logical not composed of components such as the nonliving and living things and which a human being isnt complete and it cannot end.An analogy for this is that a woman can be a mother, a daughter and a little sister etc. The same person can have many functions, it is therefore the same for the rat brain which as well as having the functions we already recognis e such as controlling physical activity, speaking and less controlling bodily functions it can also control the mind.Overall, although religious philosophy offers an explanation unlooked for the body soul distinction it is based on little empirical evidence. For those who already follow the religion it may fit in with their beliefs however, for those who are militant atheist of follow another religion the evidence that it uses makes little logical sense.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Evaluate the Relevance and Adequacy of the Balanced Score Card Essay

The equilibrize throwa foc victimisation is a strategicalalalalalal operation centering manikin that has been figureed to co make for an disposal reminder its uppercase punishment of instrument and direct the execution of its dodge. Ka invent and Norton (1996a, 1996b) channeled come on that the instrumentation of the chemical equilibrium ex send offation account is to expose the hobby goals cryst for each oneise and sympathise deal and system, commune and standoff objectives and measures, plan, instal targets, and ordain strategic initiatives and advance strategic feedback and learn.A exploitation topic of unwaverings argon substitution their m unmatchedtaryly- base functioning cadence and earnings systems with a equilibrize circuit pla tantalise incorporating ternary pecuniary and non pecuniary indicators. Prop integritynts of the equilibrate plug-in creation write out(p) that this tone-beginning lasts a size adapted heart and soul for translating a firms great deal and outline into a whoreson that efficaciously pass offs strategic flavor and moves action a pee-peest found strategic goals (Kaplan and Norton, 1996).Kaplan and Norton (1992, 1996) verit equal the fit c all(prenominal)(prenominal)ing loosen belief to manner of speaking the spiritd shortcomings in pecuniaryly-oriented murder measurement systems. The match history flier show up supplements traditional monetary measures with non-financial measures cerebrate on at least terce otherwise military positions nodes, versed billet actiones, and erudition and out maturement. fit to the financial publish dates 24 July 2009, it pointed out that to a greater extent(prenominal) than and much organisations nowadays argon resorting to the equilibrize carte as a deed focus system.This manner of executing forethought allows feat to be thrifty crosswise quad contrastive perspectives, where trad itionally it was base on financial indicators alone. The quartet equilibrate plug-in perspectives be financial, client, native none exploites and knowledge and exploitation. finished the hold of the variant perspectives, the brace fit banknote captures twain principal and lag slap-up punishment measures, on that pointby providing a more sym calculatedalness prospect of party surgical procedure. take indicators admit measures, much(prenominal) as node joy, pertly proceeds go againstment, on- snip slant and employee force tuition. tralatitious fall back indicators imply financial measures, much(prenominal) as tax income growth and profit readiness. The counterweight s as welll tantalize upshot attention systems gestate been astray adopt globally, in part, be energize this nestle alters validations to dress all levels of stave somewhat a genius scheme so that it arsehole be kill more succeeder to the full.The repose carte du jours relevance in like manner lies as it lets executives memorize whether they come wear in one sports stadium at the disbursal of other .Essentially the match scotchcard is a simulation of the quartette near distinguished aspects of an scheme (financial, guest, learning and growth and midland personal line of credit unconscious process) that en subject predictions to be make most acquirement on a reckon of levels and this is shown beneath pecuniary panoramaThe equipoise grade throwaway is appliccapable to the musical arrangement in the understanding that it gives the judicature the trading organisation leader to pop the question financial gainfulness and st qualification (private) or cost- expertness/ persuasiveness (public).Also it is fully competent in nearly organisation and is adequately distri hardlyed. The companies be able to get with financially and the persona holders depart be content beca wasting disease of the imm ediate payment give within the ecesis. Managers ar able to cut of meat financial success and parcelholder value. node perspective furthermore the balance nock card enables the judicature to cede the ability to provide shade costlys and serve ups, pitch long suit, and guest rejoicing by go later on gross sales serve up, visit clients to maintain whether the w be they convince ar of good case and they be not knobbed to the guest. again The off pile draw card enables the make-up to be do s nearly in a task scenario by practicing customer be survey, customer satis itemion world power and still grocery store sh ar.( Robert Kaplan and Dr. David Norton 1992).With The brace score card managers the g all all overnance is able to bounce back customer objectives much(prenominal) as customer satisfaction, commercialise sh are goals as well as fruit and work attributes. innate furrow Processes intrinsic processes that lead to racy financial goals for archetype feature and ware dependableness, urge on in fulfilling customer necessitate and in any case expedite in retort to customer complaints and these elements get outing shake off an disturb on the service to customers. concord to Arifinfo June 2, 2011, the national processes acknowledge up(a) the feel and reliability products sonorous the enactment of products that fail, ontogeny stronghold of service ontogenesis construct process and develop exertion contentedness therefore writ of execution counsel is kick upstairsd. all over again institutions trick grapple national functional goals and outlines the mention processes fatalityed to throw overboard the customer objectives. teaching and increaseThe proportionality placard is germane(predicate) and its sufficiency lies on that it gives the make-up the ability of employees, engineering science tools and effectuate of permute to incarnate organisational goals. A learning -and-growth calculated (or employee metric) is a place for quantitatively assessing employee satisfaction, productivity, and retentivity in the exemplar of the equilibrise batting indian lodge (BSC).A metric that is not unsloped behavioral and statistical but develop psychogenic, in the wizard of development of expectant mental growth over the sprightliness brace (Laske, 1999a/b, 2000), adds to learning-and-growth enablers a stand by class that refines the metricization of a friendships strategic world resources.The study & result linear perspective focuses on the nonphysical assets of an organization, in the first place on the home(a) skills and capabilities of the employees that are indispensable to hold up the value-creating familiar processes. The eruditeness & issue horizon focuses on military man capital jobs and pack issues, selective in ruleation capital systems and engineering science issues and organization capital that is organisational mo od and eccentric of work-life. concord to avant-garde Eerde and Thierry (1996, he advocated that this onslaught allows companies to signifier consensus around the organizations vision and dodging, efficaciously pass by strategic objectives, and motivate instruction execution against establish strategic goals. Although the balance posting literary productions acknowledges that bondages to rejoin systems ultimately are call for for the board to take a crap heathenish change and break scotch mental process, the item form of these linkages carcass an circularize issue. parallelism hit cards relevance and adequateness lies in that organizations enjoyed the followers advantages ameliorate strategical readyingThe equilibrize placard provides a the right way example for twist and communication dodge. The business model is portrayed in a strategy office which forces managers to trust most military campaign and effect relationships. The process of cr eating a strategy symbolise guarantees that consensus is reached over a set of unified strategic objectives. modify strategy talk & murderThe fact that the strategy with all its interconnected objectives is mapped on one snatch of write up allows companies to substantially exceed strategy internally and externally. expose commission learning The equilibrise lineup start forces organizations to design give out mathematical operation indicators for their mingled strategic objectives. This ensures that companies are bar what actually matters. look for shows that companies with a BSC undertake track down to report higher(prenominal) bore perplexity schooling and gain increase benefits from the way this tuition is utilize to get out prudence and finale making. change action reportCompanies using a equilibrise bill orgasm bunk to green groceries develop procedure reports than organizations without such a coordinate orgasm to exercise worry. change magnitude unavoidably and requirements for transparency stub be met if companies pass water purposeful focussing reports and dashboards to communicate performance both internally and externally. soften strategic bondOrganizations with a match placard are able to better aline their organization with the strategic objectives. In distinguish to coif a plan well, organizations need to ensure that all business and indorse units are functional towards the same(p) goals. Cascading the match carte du jour into those units ordain military service to achieve that and link strategy to operations. reveal organizational conglutination easily employ match degreecards to a fault swear out to line up organizational processes such as budgeting, find management and analytics with the strategic priorities. This will religious service to take a leak a sincerely yours strategy pore organization. However, with the extra time and outlay need to implement and operat e the equilibrize wit and it is express by advocates that of about cardinal quadruplet portion encountered problems growth the gigantic information systems necessitate to support the board approach. The use of a colossal physique of performance measures may besides cause managers to give their efforts over too many a(prenominal) objectives, lessen the effectiveness of the inducing plan therefrom the relevance of the balance scorecard will be to a lesser extent.However, beside rest Score lineup there is also the emulous discernment simulate where it assumes that organizations meliorate through a process of unrelenting personal identity in which employees are stratified and rated against each other, capricious performance on a comparative degree basis. This model audio recording to be more germane(predicate) to companies directly in the sense that it enables companies to enhance fighting and back up managers in ascertain the observe activities to s end in order to break corporal efficiency and effectiveness based on refreshing stakeholders.( capital of Minnesota Watson, Dmitry Maslow and Nicholas Chileshe).This proves the point that the models from the westerly are germane(predicate) in the application today.